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The so-called "Sumerian Question" as to the genuine linguistic 
character of the ancient Non-Semitic Babylonian texts has agitated 
the Assyriological world for more than twenty years. The new 
Sumerian matter from the monuments which is constantly coming 
to hand demands, in the interest of all those who can look upon 
this discussion with impartial eyes, a most rigid and unprejudiced 
examination. Dr. Vanderburgh in the following monograph has 
adhered to the views expounded in my "Materials for a Sumerian 
Lexicon" (J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 19051907), that the 
so-called Sumerian was originally a Non-Semitic agglutinative lan- 
guage which, in the course of many centuries of Semitic influences, 
became so incrusted with Semiticisms, most of them the result of 
a very gradual development of the earlier foreign sacred speech 
of the priests, that it is really not surprising to find the theory 
that Sumerian was merely a Semitic cryptography set forth and 
vigorously upheld by so eminent a scholar as Professor Halevy 
(MSL., pp. VIII, IX). 

The study of the more ancient Non-Semitic texts, more par- 
ticularly of the Sumerian unilingual hymns, cannot fail to shed 
additional light on the nature of this peculiar idiom, besides fur- 
nishing a valuable addition to the study of the Babylonian reli- 
gious system. ^ 

The texts of the hymns in Vol. XV. of the Brit. Mus. Gun. 
Texts are not always in good condition and present many diffi- 
culties, a solution of some of which, it is hoped, has been suggested 
in this work with at least approximate correctness. 

John Dyneley Prince 

Columbia University 
October 1st, 1907 

To the 
Rev. Edward Judson, D. D., 

in recognition of his friendship to the author 
and of his interest in Oriental studies 


Vol. XV. of the "Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in 
the British Museum, printed by order of the Trustees", was pub- 
lished in 1902. Plates 7 30 of this valuable volume contain 
hymns addressed to Bel, Nergal, Adad, Sin, Tammuz, Bau and Nin- 
girgilu. Of these, besides the translations given in the present 
work, the following have been translated and commented on; viz., 
J. Dyneley Prince, Jour. Amer. Or. Soc., xxviii, pp. 168 182, a 
hymn to Nergal (PI. 14); and a hymn to Sin (also rendered and 
explained in this thesis) by E. Guthrie Perry, in Hymnen und Ge- 
bete an Sin (PL 17). In press at present are also translations by 
J. D. Prince, a hymn to Bau, Vol. XV. PL 22 in the Harper Me- 
morial Volume (Chicago) ; and , by the same author, a hymn to 
Ningirgilu, Vol. XV. PL 23, in the Paul Haupt Collection to appear 
in 1908. 

All these hymns in Plates 7 30 stand by themselves as distinct 
from anything hitherto published. They are unilingual, a fact in- 
dicating that they are very ancient and furthermore adding mate- 
rially to the difficulty of their translation. This Thesis ventures 
a transliteration, translation and commentary of four of the hymns 
which are peculiarly difficult owing to their unilingual Non-Semitic 
character. Of the history of the tablets in question, which are all 
in the Old Babylonian character, we have no information. They 
must tell their own story. 

The writer of this Thesis wishes to acknowledge with much 
appreciation the aid given him by Dr. John Dyneley Prince, Professor 
of Semitic Languages in Columbia University, in the preparation of 
this work. 

New York, Oct. 1st, 1907 

F. A. Vanderburgh 

List of Abbreviations 

AL: Assyrische Lesestucke, von Friedrich Delitzsch. Vierte durch- 

aus neu bearbeitete Auflage. 

ASK: Akkadische und Sumerische Keilschrifttexte , von Paul Haupt. 
BN: Das Babylonische Nimrodepos, von Paul Haupt. 
Br: A Classified List of Cuneiform Ideograms, Compiled by Rudolph 

E. Briinnow. 
CDAL.: A Concise Dictionary of the Assyrian Language, by William 

CH: The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon, by Robert Francis 


Cler: Collection de Clercq. Catalogue. Antiquit& Assyriennes. 
CT : Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum. 
De*c: De"couvertes en Chaldde, par Ernest de Sarzec. 
EBH: Early Babylonian History, by Hugo Radau. 
EBL: Explorations in Bible Lands during the 19th Century, by H. V. 


HBA : A History of Babylonia and Assyria, by R. W. Rogers. 
HW: Assyrisches Handworterbuch, von Friedrich Delitzsch. 
IG: The Great Cylinder Inscriptions A and B of Gudea, by Ira 

Maurice Price. 
JA: Journal Asiatique. 

JRAS: The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 
MSL: Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon, by John Dyneley Prince. 
N: Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates, by 

John Punnett Peters. 

OBI : Old Babylonian Inscriptions, chiefly from Nippur. By H. V. Hil- 
OBTR: Old Babylonian Temple Records, by Robert Julius Lau. 

R: Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, prepared by Sir Henry 


RAAO: Revue d'Assyriologie et d'Archeologie Orientale. 
RBA: Die Religion Babyloniens uud Assyriens, von Morris Jastrow, Jr. 


ESA: Recueil de Signes Archaiques de 1'Ecriture Cunelforme, par 

V. Scheil. 

SSD: Lea Signes Sume"riens derives, par Paul Toscanne. 
SSO: A Sketch of Semitic Origins, by George Aaron Barton. 
SVA: Die Sumerischen Verbal- Afformative nach den altesten Keil- 

inschriften, von Vincent Brummer. 
TC: Tableau Compare" des Ecritures Babylonienne et Assyrienne 

Archaiques et Modernes, par A. Amiaud et L. Mechineau. 
TEA: Der Tontafelfund von El Amarna, herausgegeben von Hugo 


TR: Travels and Researches in Chaldaea and Susiana, by Wm. 
K. Loftus. 

Table of Contents 


Introduction 1 

Chapter I 21 

Transliteration, Translation and Commentary, Hymn to Bel 
Chapter II 42 

Transliteration, Translation and Commentary, Hymn to Sin 
Chapter III 55 

Transliteration, Translation and Commentary, Hymn to Adad 
Chapter IV 70 

Transliteration, Translation and Commentary, Hymn to Tammuz 
Glossary 81 


The gods honored in the hymns treated in the following Thesis 
are Bel, Sin (Nannar), Adad (Ramman) and Tammuz, all deities of 
the old Babylonian pantheon, representing different phases of per- 
sonality and force, conceived of as incorporated in nature and as 
affecting the destinies of men. These gods are severally designated 
in the hymns as follows: 

in Tablet 13963, Rev. 1, "0 Bel of the mountains;" 
in Tablet 13930, Obv. 2, "0 father Nannar;" 
in Tablet 29631, Obv. 10, "0 Ramman, king of heaven"; and 
in Tablet 29628, Obv. 3, "The lord Tammuz" (CT. XV, 10, 
15, 16, 17 and 19). 

The attributes and deeds belonging to these divinities are 
adduced from a wide range of literature, beginning with the royal 
inscriptions of the pre-dynastic periods and ending with the in- 
scriptions of the monarchs of the later Babylonian empire. In fact, 
the building inscriptions of the Babylonians, the war inscriptions 
of the Assyrians, the legendary literature, the incantations, as well 
as the religious collections, particularly the hymns, afford us many 
descriptions, of greater or less length, of all the Babylonian gods. 

To aid the student in understanding better the character of 
the four gods whose hymns have been translated in the following 
Thesis, I here give a brief descriptive sketch of each of the deities 
whose praises were sung in the documents which I have chosen 
to render. 

1. Bel 

Bel was the most ancient of all Babylonian gods and was a 
popular deity through the historic rise and fall of several Babylonian 
states, when no other god received prominent recognition. When 
En-sag-kusanna, lord of Kengi, subdued the city of Kis in the north 
of Babylonia, he brought the spoil of his victory to Bel. "To Bel 
(En-lil), king of the lands, En-sag-kusanna, lord of Kengi, the spoil 


of Kis, wicked of heart, he presented." l Urukagina, king of Lagas, 
built a temple to Ningirsu, the god of Girsu, but he, in honoring 
Ningirsu as the hero of Bel, was really honoring Bel. Tor Nin- 
girsu, the hero of Bel, Urukagina, king of Sirpurla, his house 
he built." 2 Eannatum, who was patesi of Lagas and made him- 
self king of Kis, calls himself the chosen of Bel, as follows : "Ean- 
natum, patesi of Sirpurla, chosen of Bel." 3 Entemena, who is 
called in the Vase of Silver, "son of Enanatum", 4 and who probably 
was the nephew of Eannatum, introduces his fine Cone Inscription 
with these words: "Bel, king of the lands, father of the gods." 5 
He also claims in the same inscription to derive the right to reign 
from Bel: "Entemena, patesi of Sirpurla, to whom a sceptre is 
given by Bel." 6 Entemena's Cone also gives us information about 
Mesilim. It speaks of Mesilim as "king of Kis." 7 In describing the 
victory of Mesilim over the Gisbanites, a people located apparently 
not very far from Ki, Entemena tells us that the victory was 
effected by the command of Bel. "Upon the command of Bel a 
scourge he (Mesilim) brought over them (the Gisbanites); the dead 
in a field of the land he buried." 8 For map showing supposed 
location of Gis"ban, see SSO. p. 158. Lugalzaggisi, a usurper from 
the north, making himself master of the world in all directions 
and setting up a throne at Erech, in his inscription of 132 lines, 
freely recognizes the favor of Bel. "Bel, king of the lands, to 
Lugalzaggisi, king of Erech, the kingship of the world did give." 9 
In this period preceding Sargon I., Samas seems to have a distinct 
place in the religious world, but he does not receive the attention 
that Bel receives. He is particularly mentioned in one inscription; 
viz., in the S&le des Vautours, where he is spoken of as "Samas, the 
king who dispenses splendour." 10 

1 dingir En-lil lugal kur-kur-ra En-$ag-ku-an-na enKi-en-gi 
ga Ki-M hul-Sag a-mu-na-ub (OBI. Nos. 90 and 92). 

2 dingir Nin-gir-su gud dingir En-lil-ld-ra Uru-ka-gi-na lugal Sir- 
la-pur-M-ge e-ni mu-na-ru (Clercq II, PL viii, Col. I). 

8 E-an-na-tum pa-te-si Sir-la-M-pur-ge mu-pad-da dingir En-lil-ge 
(Galet A, Col. I. See Dec. XLIII). 

4 En-teme-na dumu En-an-na-tum (Lines 3 and 10. See DeV. XL VII). 

B dingir En-lil lugal kur-kur-ra ab-ba dingir-dingir-ru-ne-ge (Cone 
of Entemena, Col. I, 1-3. v See Dec. XL VII). 

6 En-teme-na pa-te-si Sir-la-pur-M pa sum-ma dingir En-lil-ld (Cone 
of Entemena, Col. V, 1923. See Dec. XLVII). 

7 Me-silim lugal KiS-M-ge (Cone of Entemena, Col. I, 89. See 
Dec. XLVII). 

8 ka dingir En-lil-ld-ta sa-u-gal ne-u md(SA'R)-dul-tak-bi edin-na ki- 
ba ni-uS-uS (Cone of Entemena, Col. 1, 28 31! See RAAO. Vol. IV, Plate II). 

dingir En-lil lugal kur-kur-ra Lugal-zag-gi-si lugal Unug-M-ga nam- 
lugal kalam-ma e-na-sum-ma-a (OBI. No. 87, Col. I, 14 and 3941). 

10 dingir Babbar lugal zal sig-ga-ka (see De*c. XXXVIII, Fragment 
D 1 , middle of the Fragment). 

The date of these early Babylonian rulers, of course, is, as 
yet, not accurately determined. The relative age of each is made 
out chiefly from palaeographic evidences (see EBH. p. 8, for example), 
supplemented with the attempt at fitting into one harmonious whole 
the events which the inscriptions of these rulers divulge. Then 
the whole schedule is crowded backward or forward or internally 
changed from time to time as new evidence is gathered for or 
against the testimony of Nabonidus (555 538 B. C.) who, when 
he discovered the tablet of Navam-Sin, declared that he was gazing 
on that which no eyes had beheld for thirty-two hundred years. 
Nabonidus says. "I dug to a depth of eighteen cubits, and the 
foundation of Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon, which for thirty-two 
hundred years no king that had preceded me had discovered, 
Samas, the great Lord of E-barra, permitted me, even me, to be- 
hold." 1 On the supposed relation of these kings to Naram-Sin, 
the rulers En-sag-kusanna, a king of the south, Urukagina, of Lagas, 
and Mesilim, a king ruling at Kis, are placed along about the date 
of 4500 B. C., while Eannatum, Enannatum and Entemena, successive 
rulers at Lagas, are placed near the date of 4200 B. C. Lugal- 
zaggisi of Erech is placed at 4000 B. C. It may be stated here 
that the date of Sargon I. as 3800 B. C. is obtained by adding 
to 3200 the date of the reign of Nabonidus as 550 years B. C. and 
also the length of the reign of Sargon* I. as 50 years. 

The seat of Bel's cult was Nippur, a city lying between the 
Euphrates and Tigris, a little below Babylon, and located, as it 
were, in the midway favorable to receiving homage from kings of 
either the north or the south of Babylonia. We find it mentioned 
as early as the time of Entemena, who in one of his inscriptions, 
in speaking of something presented to Bel, says : "To Bel of Nippur 
by Entemena it was presented". 2 In the bilingual legend of the 
Creation, Nippur seems to be regarded as a very old city. It is 
placed at the head of the list of three that are mentioned as an- 
cient cities of Babylonia. "Nippur was not made ; E-kur was 
not built. Erech was not made; E-anna was not built. The abyss 
was not made; Eridu was not built." 3 Nippur evidently is older 
than the worship of Bel and the conception of Bel is older than 
the first king of whom we have mention; viz., En-sag-kusauna, 
who is placed at 4500 B. C. 

1 (56 b) XVJII amat ga-ga-ri (57) u-$ap-pi-il-ma te-me-en-na Na-ram- 
# <Stn(E) mar Sar-ukin (58) Sd III M II C Sundte ma-na-ma Sarru a-lik 
mah-ri-ia la i-mu-ru (59) *" SamaS belu rabu-u -bar-ra (60) u-kal-lim- 
an-ni ia-a-& (V R. 64, Col. II). 

2 dingir En-lil-li En-lil-ki-ta En-te-me-na-ra mu-na-Sub (OBI. No. 116). 
8 En-lil-ki nu-du E-kur-ra nu-dim Unug-ki nu-du Il-an-na nu-dim 

zu-ab nu-du Nun-ki nu-dim (CT. XIII, Tablet 82522, 1048. Plate 35, 
lines 6, 7 and 8). 

At Nippur was located Bel's great temple which was commonly 
called E-kur, house of the mountain, a name particularly descriptive 
of the shrine of Bel resting on the top of the mountain-like zig- 
gurrat. Sargon I. calls himself the builder of Bel's temple at 
Nippur, and Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon, also calls himself the 
builder of Bel's temple. Sargon's language, which we take from 
a door- socket found at Nippur, is : *Sargani-sar-ali, son of Itti-Bel, 
the mighty king of Agade, builder of E-kur, temple of Bel in 
Nippur". 1 The language of Naram-Sin from a brick stamp found 
at Nippur is : "Naram-Sin, builder of the temple of Bel". 2 Neither 
Sargon nor his son meant that he was the original builder of E-kur. 
They were simply repairers of the temple, like many other kings. 
Many kings down to the last king of the last empire took much 
pride in rebuilding temples. There must have been a temple at 
Nippur when En-sag-kuSanna presented the spoil of Kis to Bel. 
Excavations at Nippur show that, as there are great deposits of 
debris above the temple pavements made by Sargon and his son, 
so beneath these pavements there is a further great layer of debris, 
proving that the founding of E-kur must reach far back into the 
darkness of pre-historic antiquity. Sargon's bricks were the first 
to bear a stamp which we may consider to imply a date, but they 
were not the first bricks laid. 

The ziggurrat which Ur-Gur, an early king of Ur, built is the 
first of which we have definite knowledge. We know something 
of the pavement that Sargon I. and Naram-Sin built, but of the 
character of the buildings that might have rested on this pavement 
we have no information. Ur-Gur leveled the ground and built a 
new platform, 8 feet high and 100 by 170 feet in area with a 
ziggurrat consisting of three stages. Some of the facings of his 
structure were made of burnt brick , bearing the inscription of 
Ur-Gur (see N. II, 124). The greatest temple Nippur ever had 
was built by an Assyrian king; viz., ASurbanipal. The structure 
covered a larger surface than any before it. The walls, instead of 
being plain, were ornamented with square half columns. The lower 
terrace was faced with baked brick, stamped with an inscription 
in which the ziggurrat is dedicated to Bel, the lord of the lands, 
by Asurbanipal, the mighty king, the king of the four quarters of 
the earth, the builder of E-kur (see N. II, 126). 

E-kur, the temple of Bel at Nippur, as restored on the basis 
of the discoveries of the University of Pennsylvania Exploration 
Fund, consists of two courts, an outer and an inner court. Within 

1 Hu Sar-ga-ni-Sar-ali mar Itti-Uu Bel da-num sar A-ga-de-ki 
E-kur bit Bel in Nippur-ki (OBI. No. 2). 

2 Narum-Uu Sin bdni bit t Bel (OBI. 4). 

the inner court stands the ziggurrat, rising to a tower of three 
or four stages which the most devout pilgrims might perhaps ascend. 
At the top is an enclosed shrine in which is a statue of Bel. Here 
Bel and his consort, Belit, for Babylonian gods maintain family 
relations like human beings , are supposed to dwell. In figurines 
Bel appears as an old man, dressed in royal robes, generally car- 
rying a thunder-bolt in his hand (see N. II, 128). By the side of 
the ziggurrat stands a temple for the use of the priests. We may 
assume on the whole, no doubt, that the assembly of pilgrims 
was confined chiefly to the outer court (see EBL. 470). 

Bel was at first a local deity, but as the circumference of 
the political territory of which Nippur was the religious centre 
was enlarged, so Bel's cult was extended. Other cities included 
in the same political domain with Nippur, recognized Bel as lord. 
Bel was a sort of war god. Kings rivaled one another in courting 
his favor. The victorious king attributed his success to Bel and 
brought the spoil to Bel. The king of the south, whether of Lagas, 
Erech or Ur, and the king of the north, whether of Kis or Agade, 
always went to Nippur to celebrate his victory. In this way Bel's 
lordship came to be recognized as extending over all Babylonia 
and finally over Assyria. Hammurabi, king at Babylon, 2300 B. C., 
recognized "Bel as lord of heaven and earth, who determines the 
destiny of the land", 1 and Tiglath-pileser I. (about 1100 B. C.), 
the first great Assyrian conqueror, called Bel "the father of the 
gods and Bel of the lands", 2 and speaks of himself as "appointed to 
dominion over the country of Bel". 3 

The Semitic appropriation of En-lil involved some transforma- 
tion in the conception of Bel. Not to refer to Palestine, there 
were three Bels; the Sumerian Bel, the Semitic Bel and the new 
Bel or Marduk, who, however, was really a different god. The 
Babylonian Bel, either in the mind of the Sumerian, of the Babylonian 
or of the Assyrian, always had his seat at Nippur. 

Under Semitic influence Bel became lord of the world. He 
was one in the hierarchy of three who ruled the universe; viz., 
Anu, the lord of the heavens, Bel, the lord of the earth, and Ea, 
the lord of the deep. The Sumerian name, En-lil, made Bel the 
"lord of fulness". The Semitic name Bel emphasized the fact of his 
lordship, and the name of his temple, E-kur, "house of the mountain", 
marked out the scope of his lordship. The earth was conceived 

1 Bel (EN.LIL) be- el Sd-me-e ii ir-si-tim Sd-i-im Si-ma-at matim 
(KALAM) (Col. I, 37. See CH. Plate I). 

2 tft Bel (EN.LIL) a-bu Hani UuBel (EN) mdtate (KUR.KUR) (I R. 9, 
Col. I, 34). 

3 (21 b) a-na Sarru-ut (22) mat Hu Belt (EN.LIL) rabi-e tu-kin-na- 
Ai (I R. 9, Col. I). 

of as a mountain resting on the abyss , and the temple with its 
zigqurrat was built to rise up like a mountain out of the deep. 
The people could stand in the court of the temple at Nippur and 
say of the mountain-like structure: 

"0 great mountain of Bel, airy mountain, 

Whose summit reaches heaven, 

Whose foundation in the shining deep is firmly laid, 

On the land like a mighty bull lying, 

With gleaming horns like the rays of the rising sun, 

Like the stars of heaven that are filled with lustre!" 1 

When Babylon became the chief city of all Babylonia, it was 
natural that its god should be regarded as supreme. It was at 
this point that political lordship seemed to pass from the old Bel 
to the new, namely to Marduk. Hammurabi, one of the early 
kings at Babylon, speaks of Bel as voluntarily transferring his 
power to Marduk. In the Assyrian legend of the Creation this 
transfer is dramatically enacted. The task of overcoming the monster 
Tiamat naturally belonged to Bel. But Marduk, the youthful god 
of Eridu, the son of Ea, was urged to attempt the feat. When 
he had slain the monster, there was joy among the gods. They 
vied with each other in bestowing honor on the victor. Finally 
Bel steps forward and confers an honor also. He bestowed on 
Marduk his own title with these words: "Father Bel calls Marduk 
the lord of the world." 2 Marduk, therefore, is sometimes called 
the new Bel in distinction from En-lil, the old Bel. 

The idea of origins is apparently not very fully elaborated in 
Babylonian literature. For instance, the Babylonians did not come 
so near to the idea of creation ex nihilo as the Hebrews. Their 
cosmogony starts with chaos. The expanse of the heavens appears 
specked with stars, some of which move with regularity. The moon 
travels across the expanse according to a prescribed order. Then 
the Babylonian bilingual account of the Creation gives a short state- 
ment of the creation of the land and sea, of man and beast. 
Generally, however, the divinity that planned and perfected order 
seems to be far in the background. The bilingual account says: 

"Marduk constructed an enclosure before the waters, 
He made dust and heaped it up within the enclosure. 

1 (15) Tcur-gal dingir En-lil-ld im-liar-sag gii-bi an da-ab-di-a zu-ab 
azag-ga-bi (16) suh-bi us-u-e apin-apin-e (19) Jour-kur-ra ama ban-da 
bo-da na-a-dim (21) si Se-ir-ei si dingir Babbar mul-mul-la-dim (23) mul an- 
na dil-bad-du i-si-is lal-a-dim (K. 4898. IV R. 27, No. 2). 

2 be-el mdtdte (KUK.KUR) sw(MU)-su it-ta-bi a-bi %"> Bel (EN.LIL) 
(K. 8522. Rev. 13. CT. XIII. Plate 27). 

Mankind he created. 

Animals of the field, creatures of the field he created. 
The Tigris and the Euphrates he made and in place put (them) 
By their names joyfully he called them". 1 

Now Marduk, we know, took the place of Bel and Bel handed 
over his prerogatives to Marduk. In transferring his rights he 
must have given over also his power to create. If Marduk pos- 
sessed the power to create in the time of his popularity, Bel must 
have had the same power in the days of his glory, before he was 
succeeded by Marduk. Therefore we are led to the belief that 
the early Babylonians looked upon Bel as the creator of animal 
and human life on earth. 

The following hymn may be regarded as embodying a legendary 
view of Bel as creator, while the idea of destruction is also in- 
corporated in the hymn: 

"Of Bel, mighty hand, 

Who lifts up glory and splendour, day of power. 

Fearfulness he establishes. 

Lord of DUN.PA.UD.DU.A, mighty hand. 

Fearfulness he establishes. 

Stormy one, father, mother, creator, mighty hand. 

The catch-net he throws over the hostile land. 

Lord, great warrior, mighty hand. 

A firm house he raises up; the enemy he overthrows. 

The shining one, lord of Nippur, mighty hand. 

The lord, the life of the land, the massu of heaven and earth." 2 

2. Sin 

Next after Bel, the moon-god is worthy of consideration, be- 
cause of the age of his cult, and because of the greatness of its 
influence in Babylonia. The moon -god had two Sumerian names, 

1 (17) . . . gi-Si-ma gi-dir i-de-na-a nam-mi-ni-in-keSda #" Marduk 
a-ma-am ina pa-an me-e ir-ku-w (18) sahar-ra ni-mu-a ki a-dag nam-mi- 
in-dub e-pi-ri ib-ni-ma it-ti a-mi iS-pu-uk (20) nam-lu-giSgal-lu ba-ru 
a-me-lu-ti ib-ta-ni (22) bir-anu nig-zi-gal edin-na ba-ru bu-ul eri Si- 
kin na-piS-ti ina fi-e-ri ib-ta-ni (23) id Idigna \d Puranunu me-dim ki 
gar-ra-dim Diglat u Puratta ib-ni-ma ina a$-ri iS-ku-un (24) tnu-ne-ne-a 
nam-duga mi-ni-in-sd-a Sum-Si-na fa-bi im-bi (Tablet 82522, 1048. 
CT. XIII. Plate 36). 

a (47) dimmer Mu-ul-lil-ld-ra id-kal (48) su-zi me-lam gur-ru ud al- 
tar (49) tm-frtf* ri-a-bi (52) u dimmer DUN.PA.UD.DU.A-ra id-kal (53) naro- 
tar gu-la im-huS ri-a-bi (56) mu-lu Til a-a damal muh-na id-kal (58) sa- 
Su-us-gal ki bal-a u-$u (60) u ur-sag gal-e id-kal (61) e gi gur-ru mulu 
er\m-ma Su-Su (62) azag gaSan En-lil-ki-a-ra id-kal (63) am Si ka-nag-gd 
maS-su ki-in-gi-ra (K. 4980. IV R. 27, No. 4). 

two Assyrian names and two great temples. The Sumerian name 
most often applied to the moon-god is Sis-ki, the particular meaning 
of which in this case does not seem to be very patent. If the 
two syllables Sis and ki are taken as nouns, the one is the con- 
struct state and the other in the genitive relation, the name means 
"brother of the land", that is, "protector of the land", or "helper 
of the land". The other Sumerian name is En-zu, lord of wisdom, 
the intellectual attribute of wisdom being closely v related to the 
physical property of giving light. While therefore Sis-ki expresses 
the material relation of the moon to the earth, En-zu seems to 
state the intellectual relation of the moon-god to the affairs of the 
earth. The first Assyrian name of the moon-god to be considered 
is Nannar. The derivation of this name is still in doubt. It 
generally occurs in bilingual literature as the Assyrian equivalent 
of the Sumerian is-ki (see IV R. 9, 318). Jastrow thinks that 
the word Nannar is made by the reduplication of nar, "light", and 
the assimilation of the first r, Nar -f- nar = Nannar (see RBA. p. 72). 
The other Assyrian name, connected with the moon-god more often 
at Harran than at Ur, is Sin, the sign being ES, used also for 
"thirty", and is applied to the moon-god as the deity of the month 
of thirty days. As the cult of the moon-god traveled from Ur to 
Harran, so the name of Sin traveled even into the peninsula of 
Arabia and probably became a local name there in the wilderness. 
The Assyrian kings of the second empire seemed to prefer to call 
the moon-god by the name Sin, but the Semitic Babylonians called 
him Nannar. 

Nannar had a temple at Ur, called E-gis'&irgal, and one at 
Harran, known as E-hulhul. Ur was the oldest of the two temple 
cities. Its history may possibly reach back to 4000 B. C. Ur 
held a position in southern Babylonia similar to that held by Nip- 
pur in northern Babylonia, but was not so old as Nippur. Ur 
was the religious centre in the south with Nannar as the state god, 
as Nippur was the religious centre in the north with Bel as the state 
god. When the states of the south and the north were united under 
Hammurabi, Babylon, becoming the religious capital of the south 
and the north combined, the state lustre of the god of Babylon 
naturally came to dim the glory of the god of Ur as well as that 
of Nippur. Harran, situated on the Euphrates in the northern part 
of Assyria, never figured in state power, and was prominent only 
because of the importance of the events that centered there, on 
the road between the east and the west. 

Nabonidus, the last Semitic Babylonian king (555 538 B. C.) 
was an enthusiastic devotee of the moon-god. He tells us what 
ASurbanipal did to the temple of the moon-god at Mugheir. In 
speaking of that temple, he calls it the house of Sin which Asur- 

banipal, king of Assyria, son of Esarhaddon, king of Assyria had 
built. Nabonidus himself rebuilt both the temples of the moon- 
god, the temple of E-gi&sirgal at Ur and the temple of E-hulhul 
at Harran, and he gives us a description of the rebuilding of 
both. We also have two prayers of Nabonidus addressed to the 
moon-god, one addressed to him at E-gis^irgal , the other ad- 
dressed to him at E-hulhul (see I K. 68, Col. I, 6ff. and V R. 64, 
Col. I, 8ff.). 

The temple ruins of E-gisslrgal have been well uncovered. 
The temple is of rectangular form, the four corners turned towards 
the four cardinal points of the compass. The platform of the base 
is at the level of the roofs of the houses, made of solid masonry 
of bricks and reached by steps at the end. On the platform are 
two stagings, also of solid masonry reached by steps at one end. 
On the second staging is a shrine of the moon-god. In sculpture 
he appears as an old man with long beard and dressed in royal 
robes. He wears a hat and in the scene there is always a thin 
crescent (see Clercq, Vol. I, Plates X XV). Loftus and Taylor 
both give drawings of the temple of E-gissirgal (see TE. p. 127 
and JRAS. XV, p. 260.) The ruins of the temple of the moon- 
god at Harran have not yet been uncovered to the extent that 
the plan of the temple can be laid before us. 

Theologically, Nannar stood at the head of the second triad 
of gods. The hierarchy of the universe consisted of the god Ami, 
the god Bel and the god Ea. The hierarchy of heaven consisted 
of the god Nannar, the god Samas and the god Istar; that is, the 
moon-god, the sun-god and the star-god. The reason for placing 
Nannar above &amas was that Nannar was the god of the ruling 
city, while Sanaas" was the city god of the dependent state, though 
the sun which Mamas' represents is stronger than the moon which 
Nannar represents, and we should expect ama, therefore, y to re- 
ceive the first place. The god of the city of Larsa was Sama. 
The god of the city of Ur was Nannar. When Larsa became sub- 
ject to Ur, the god of Larsa; viz., Samas, became the child of the 
god of Ur; that is, of Nannar. The relation of the night to the 
calendar also shows that the rank of Nannar was superior to that 
of Sama. The day began at evening ; not with the morning. The 
sun too was the son of the night; that is, it issued forth from 
the night , in the morning. Kings, thinking of this fact, that the 
sun was born of the night, often addressed Samas as the offspring 
of the god Sin. The rising of the moon in the night to send forth 
its light into the darkness also impressed the Babylonian with the 
power of the moon. The waxing and waning of the moon left 
the same impression on the Babylonian mind. The regularity of 
the phases of the moon and its effect upon the tides as well showed 


the moon to be an agent in marking time. Finally, the place of 
the moon among the stars also gave him the appearance of having 
royal sway. 

Nannar's national influence was much like that of Bel. Geo- 
graphically, he represented southern Babylonia, while Bel was the 
chief deity of northern Babylonia. When Marduk became the 
patron god of Babylon, Bel and Nannar still held their positions 
as patron gods, but in subordination to Marduk. Besides, they 
did not lose their influence as supreme deities, each in his pe- 
culiar sphere, Bel as the god of the earth and Nannar as the 
god of the moon. Bel was ruler of the earth while Nannar was, 
by his light, a producer in the earth. Bel was the providential 
director of life on earth, Nannar was the originator of life on earth, 
as he formed the child in the womb. Both were superhuman in 
power and wisdom. Thus Hammurabi: "My words are mighty. 
If a man pay no attention to my words , may Bel , the lord who 
determines destinies, whose command cannot be altered, who has 
enlarged my dominion, drive him out from his dwelling. May Sin, 
the lord of heaven, my divine creator, whose scimetar shines among 
the gods, take away from him the crown and throne of sovereignty." 1 

No god in the mind of the Babylonian had reached the posi- 
tion of combining in himself all the qualities of divinity. So it 
did not seem inconsistent to the Babylonian to worship two gods 
like Bel and Nannar, or more gods. There was a tolerance of all 
gods; each was considered as acting in his own circle, and these 
circles did not necessarily exclude the one the other. One god 
might be more important than another, according to the import- 
ance of the circle in which his virtue was effective, or according 
to the importance of the political power the circle of whose sway 
was under the special tutelage of some particular god. Babylonian 
worship cannot be said to be polytheistic in the grosser form, nor 
had it reached the higher ideal that lies in monotheism. It may 
properly be considered a henotheistic worship in which there is a 
pantheon of gods whose local and universal claims did not cause 
the gods or their devotees to war the one on the other. 

There is a truly great bilingual hymn addressed to Nannar. 
According to the colophon it was transcribed by the chief penman 
of Asurbanipal from an old copy. My impression is that it is an 

1 (Col. XLI, 99) a-md(PI)-tu-u-a na-aS-ga (Col. XLII, 18) Sum-ma 
a-me(Pl)-lum (19) a-ma(PT)-ti-ia (22) la i-gul-ma (53) Bel (EN.LIL) be- 
lum (54) mu-Si-im i-ma-tim (55) Sd ki-be(NE)-zu (56) la ut-ta-ka-ru (57) mu- 
Sar-bu-ii (58) sar-ru-ti-ia (62) i-na u-ub-ti-$u (63) li-Sd-ab-bi-ha-a-um 
(Col. XLIII, 41) u Sin (EN.ZU) be-el Sd-me-e (42) 7t(AN) ba-ni-i 
(43) d &e-ri-zu (44) i-na f7YNI.NI) su-pa-a-al (45) agam knssam Sd Sar-ru- 
tim (46) li-te-ir-M (CH. Plates LXXVI, LXXYII and LXXIX). 


enlargement of the hymn to Nannar of which this Thesis gives a 
transliteration, translation and commentary. For this reason I here- 
with append the following translation: 

"0 lord, highest of the gods, alone in heaven and earth exalted! 

father Nannar, lord of Ansar, highest of the gods! 

father Nannar, lord Anu the great, highest of the gods! 

father Nannar, lord Sin, highest of the gods! 

father Nannar, lord of Ur, highest of the gods! 

father Nannar, lord of E-gissirgal, highest of the gods! 

father Nannar, lord of the shining crown, highest of the gods! 

father Nannar, of most perfect royalty, highest of the gods! 

father Nannar, in royal robes marching, highest of the gods! 

strong young bullock, with great horns, of perfect physical strength, 
with hazel-colored pointed beard of luxurious growth and per- 
fect fulness! 

fruit, whose stalk growing of itself reacheth a tall form, beauti- 
ful to look upon, whose perfection never satiateth! 

mother, the producer of life, thou who settest up for the crea- 
tures of life a lofty dwelling! 

merciful and gracious father, thou who boldest in hand the life 
of all the land! 

lord, thy divinity, like the distant heavens and the broad sea, 
inspireth reverence! 

creator of the lands, founding the temple and giving it a name! 

namer of royalty, determiner of the future for distant days! 

mighty prince, whose distant thought no god can declare. 

thou whose knee bendeth not, opener of the road for the gods 
thy brothers! 

thou who goest forth from the foundation of heaven to the height 
of heaven, opening the door of heaven, creating light for all men! 

father, begetter of all, who lookest upon the creatures of life, 
who thinkest of them! 

lord, who fixest the destiny of heaven and earth, whose command 
no one changeth! 

thou who boldest the fire and the water, who turnest the life 
of creation, what god reacheth thy fulness! 

Who in heaven is high? Thou alone art high. 

Who on earth is high? Thou alone art high. 

As for thee, when thy word is spoken in heaven, the Igigi bow 
down the face. 

As for thee, when thy word is spoken on earth, the Anunaki kiss 
the ground. 

As for thee, when thy word like the wind resoundeth on high, food 
and drink abound. 


As for thee, when thy word is established in the land, it causeth 

vegetation to grow. 
As for thee, thy word maketh fat the herd and flock and inceaseth 

the creatures of life. 
As for thee, thy word secureth truth and righteousness and causeth 

men to speak righteousness. 
As for thee, thy word extendeth to heaven, it covereth the earth, 

no one can comprehend it. 

As for thee, thy word, who can understand it, who can approach it! 
lord, in heaven supreme, on earth the leader, among the gods 

thy brothers without a rival. 
king of kings, the lofty one, whose command no one approacheth, 

whose divinity no god can liken. 
Where thy eye looketh thou showest favor, where thy hand toucheth 

thou securest salvation. 
lord, the shining one, who directeth truth and righteousness in 

heaven and earth and causeth them to go forth. 
Look graciously on thy temple, look graciously on thy city. 
Look graciously on Ur, look graciously on E-gi&Sirgal, 
Thybeloved consort, the gracious mother, calleth to thee :0 lord give rest! 
The hero SamaS calleth to thee: lord give rest! 
The Igigi call to thee: lord give rest! 
The Anunnaki call to thee: lord give rest! 

calleth to thee: lord give rest! 

Ningal calleth to thee: lord give rest! 

May the bar of Ur, the enclosure of E-giSsirgal and the building 

of Ezida be established! 

The gods of heaven and earth call to thee: lord give rest! 
The lifting up of the hand. 48 lines on the tablet to Nannar. 
Mighty one. Lord of strength. 
Like its original, copied and revised. 
Tablet of I&tar-Suma-eres, the chief scribe. 
Of Asurbanipal, king of legions, king of Assyria, 
Son of Nabu-zer-listesir, chief penman." IV R. 9. 

This Asurbanipal hymn may be considered as remarkable fox- 
its advanced ideas. In the first part of the hymn there is intro- 
duced the mythological idea of the bullock's head in the moon 
with horns and the face with flowing hazel-colored beard, so that 
strength and brilliancy are pointed out. But the hymn advances 
into literal speech by which the most varied and greatest of divine 
attributes are attached to the god Nannar. He is named as sovereign 
god, a self-created god, a merciful god, the begetter of all life, the 
maintainer of the life of the world, the bestower of gifts to men, 
the establisher of dwellings; he fixes destinies, pronounces judgment, 


gives water to man and supplies him with vegetable food. He 
holds a unique and exalted position in heaven and on earth above 
all other beings. To him the angels of heaven and spirits of earth 
bow, and at his command the forces of nature perform their mar- 
vellous functions. 

3. Adad 

The storm -god is known by the Sumerian ideogram 1m. The 
sign IMMU in the El-Amarna tablets (1500 B. C.) has the reading 
A dad, a name connected with the Syrian Hadad. Oppert thinks 
Adad is the god's oldest name. It seems evidently a foreign equi- 
valent for Im. The Assyrian name Ramman is a provisional name 
meaning "thunderer", and probably only an epithet. The sign IMMU 
has also the value Mer. This is, no doubt, the original and real 
name of the god, which appears as well in the form Immer. The 
primary idea in the name is that of wind, then, that of rain and 
finally of thunder and lightning. The god is not an object like 
Nannar, but a force; then the force is personified and he is spoken 
of as a person. Hammurabi puts him in the second triad of gods. 
He is the third person of that triad, Sin being the first person 
and Sama the second. Generally Istar has the third place in the 
second triad. In that case Ramman falls outside of that triad 
and takes position among all the gods as seventh in importance. 
The order is as follows: Anu, Bel, Ea, Sin, Samas, Istar, Adad 
(Ramman). As a Babylonian god we find Ramman's name appears 
in Hammurabi's time as a common name in literature. He is in- 
voked in Hammurabi's Code, like other gods, of course in his 
sphere as a storm-god. Thus: "If a man will pay no attention to 
my words, may Adad, the lord of abundance, the regent of heaven 
and earth, my helper, deprive him of the rain from heaven and 
the water-floods from the springs! May he bring his land to de- 
struction through want and hunger! May he break loose furiously 
over his city and turn his land into a heap left by a whirlwind!" 1 
With the kings of the Cassite dynasty Ramman seems to be popular. 
His name appears by the side of that of Samas and he is called 
the divine lord of justice. In the Babylonian dynasty of kings, 
Nebuchadnezzar I. addresses Ramman as the great lord of heaven, 
the lord of the subterranean waters and rain, whose curse is in- 
voked against the one who sets aside the decrees of Nebuchadnezzar 
or defaces his monument. 

1 (Col. XLII, 18 a) Sum-ma a-me(PI)-lum (19) a-md(PT)-ti~ia (22) la 
i-gul-ma (Col. XLIH, 64) * Adad be-el hegallim (65) gu-gal Sd-me-e (66) ft 
ir-$i-tim (67) ri-zu-u-a (68) zu-ni i-na Sd-me-e (69) mi-lam (70) i-na na- 
ak-bi-im (71) li-te-ir-u (72) ma-zu (73) i-na hu-M-ah-hi-im (74) it bu-bu- 
tim (75) li-fral-U-ik (76) e-li ali-$& (77) iz-zi-ii (78) li-is-si-ma (79) ma-zu 
a-na til a-bu-bi-im (80) li-te-ir (CH. Plates LXXVI, LXXIX and LXXX). 


Ramman is thought to be more truly an Assyrian than a 
Babylonian god. He is almost as dear to the Assyrian as the god 
Aur. Historical data, however, do not furnish very early mention 
of his name in Assyria. We find that he had a seat of worship 
in Damascus, and his cult had vogue in the plain of Jezreel, his 
name appearing in Hebrew, written by mistake, after the text was 
Masoretically vocalized, "Riramon" which is exactly the same in 
form as the Hebrew word for pomegranate. In Assyria we can 
trace his history back to some extent by means of inscriptions in 
which his name appears as an element in the compound names of 
kings. For example, we find his name in the name of the ancient 
Assyrian king SamaS-Ramnian, and from an inscription of Tiglath- 
pileser I. we learn also that Saraas-Ramman built a temple to the 
god Ramman. So we have historical evidence that the cult of 
Ramman is older in Assyria than this king, who was reigning in 
1820 B. C. How much older it may be we do not know. Jastrow 
thinks that the cult is indigenous to Assyrian soil. 

Between the time of Sama- Ramman and the time of Tiglath- 
pileser I. the service of Ramman must have declined somewhat, 
for the temple of Ramman in the v city of Assur seems not to have 
been repaired from the days of Samas-Ramman till Tiglath-pileser 
himself rebuilt it. Tiglath-pileser says that from the time of the 
founding it was in decay six hundred and forty years. Then king 
Asurdan tore it down entirely. Sixty years after the entire des- 
truction, Tiglath-pileser builds the temple anew. He says that in 
the beginning of his government the great gods Anu and Adad 
demanded for him the restoration of their sacred dwelling. "I made 
bricks and cleared its ground until I reached the artificial flat 
ten-ace upon which the old temple had been built. I laid its 
foundation upon the solid rock and the whole place incased with 
bricks like a fire-place, overlaid on it a layer 'of fifty bricks in 
depth and built upon this the foundations of the temple of Anu 
and Adad of large square stones. I built it up from foundation 
to roof, larger and grander than befoi'e, and erected also two great 

temple towers fitting ornaments of their great divinities." 1 

From Tiglath-pileser on, temples of Ramman do not seem to be 
often mentioned, but the god himself is frequently spoken of in 
inscriptions of the kings. Sargon II. has one of the eastern gates 

1 (Col. VII, 75 b) libndti al-bi-in (76) kaJi-l-ar-Su u-mi-si (77) dan- 
na-su ak-Sud u3-se-e-u (78) i-na eli fa-sir sadi-i dan-ni ad-di (79) a- 
ra Sd-a-tu a-na si-fiir-ti-Su (80) i-na libndti ki-ma ka-nu-ni aS-pu-uk 
(81) L ti-ip-ki a-na su-pa-li (82) u-fi-bi i-na muh-hi-fri (83) us-Se bit 
m A-nim it itu Ramman (84) Sd bu-u-li ad-di (85) iS-tu u-e-$u a-di 
tah-lu-bi-Su (86) e-bu-uS eli mah-ri-e ut-tir (87) II si-kur-ra-te rabu-te 
(88) Sd a-na si-mat ilu-ti-Su-nu rabi-te (89) &i-lu-ka lu-u db-ni-ma (I R. 15). 


of his temple named "Ramman the producer of abundance". Asur- 
banipal enumerates thirteen gods whom he honors as the great 
gods, and places Ramman fifth in the list. 

Ramman's most esteemed service was that of bestowing bless- 
ing. The rains in the right proportion were a boon to the land, 
filling the canals and watering the soil. Hammurabi calls Ramman 
the lord of abundance and his helper. Tiglath-pileser I. prays for the 
blessings of prosperity, as he prays to Adad: "May Anu and Adad 
turn to me truly and accept graciously the lifting up of ray hand, 
hearken unto my devout prayers , grant me and my reign abun- 
dance of rain , years of prosperity and fruitfulness in plenty." : 
Asurbanipal describes the blessings he receives by the favor of 
this god: 'Ramman let loose his showers and Ea has opened his 
springs, the grain has grown to a height of five yards and the 
ears have been five sixths of a yard long, the produce of the land 
has been abundant and the fruit trees have borne fruit richly."' 2 
The mention of Anu and Ea with Ramman is because of their 
power to produce water, Ea representing the depths of water and 
Anu the heaven with its clouds of rain. 

The most conspicuous work of Ramman was that of destruction. 
It is in this function of judgment that he is associated with &amas\ 
The connection lies in the fact that the lightning of Ramman is 
like the day-light of Samas; so, as the god of lightning, Ramman 
has the title birlcu. Lightning and flooding rain were , because 
of their destructive character, fearful forces, and the kings in call- 
ing for a curse on hostile man or land turn to Ramman in 
imprecation, as, for example, Raman-Nirari I. does concerning the 
man who may be tempted to blot out the record of Ramman- 
Nirari's name: "May Ramman with terrible rainstorm overwhelm, 
him, may flood, destruction, wind, rebellion, revolution, tempest, 
want and famine, drought and hunger be continually in his land. 
May he come down on his land like a flood. May he turn it into 
mounds and ruins. May Ramman strike his land with a destruc- 
tive bolt." 3 

1 (Col. VIII, 23) a* A-nim u ttu Eammanu (24) ki-niS li-sih-ru-ni-ma 
(25) ni-iS ka-ti-ia li-ra-mu (26) te-me-ik ik-ri-be-ia liS-me-ii (27) zu-u-ni 
da-ah-du-te Sd-na-at (28) nu-uh-Se ii bar-ri-e a-na pali-ia (29) liS-ru-ku 
(I Rl 16). 

2 (Col. I, 45) ttu Eammanu zunni-iu u-maS-Si-ra " E-a u-paf-fi-ra 
nakbu-Su (46) fyan&u ana ammatu Se-am i$-ku ina abseni-Su (47) e-ri-ik &ii- 
bul-tu parab ana ammatu (48 a) iSir eburu (50) Su-wn-mu-ba in-bu (V R. 1). 

3 (38 b) Hu Eammanu i-na ri-Tii-i (39) li-mu-ti li-ir-fyi-su a-bu-bu 
(40) Saru limnu sa-a1.i-ma-a-tu te-Su-u (41) a-Sam-Su-tu su-un-ku bu-bu-tu 
(42) a-ru-ur-tu fyu-ild-hu i-na mdti-Sii lu ka-ia-an mdti-fyt a-btt-bi-iS lu-u$- 
ba-i (43) a-na tili u kar-mi lu-ti-ir &* Eammanu i-na be-ri-Su li-mu-ti 
mdti-Su li-ib-ri (IV R. 39, Rev.). 


Some Babylonian composer has set forth the terrifying side 
of Eamman's character in a bilingual hymn as follows: 

"The lord in his anger himself makes heaven quake. 

Adad in his wrath lifts up the earth. 

The mighty mountain he himself smites down. 

At his anger, at his wrath, 

At his roaring, at his thundering, 

The gods of heaven ascend to heaven, 

The gods of earth enter earth, 

Sama into the foundation of heaven enters, 

Sin in the height of heaven is magnified." 1 

4. Tammuz 

There is a fascination about the life of Tammuz not experienced 
in the contemplation of the other gods of Babylonia. He seems 
to be presented to us just as though he were a man. 

Our first paragraph may describe him as a resident of one of 
the ancient cities of southern Babylonia. The city of his residence 
was Eridu on the banks of the Euphrates. His official title is that 
of sun-god and his occupation is to care for the growth of plants. 
The name of his father was Ea, the lord of the city of Eridu, 
whose duties consisted in governing the waters of the river on 
whose shore the city rested. Tammuz had a mother, whose name 
was Davkina, the mistress of the vine. Tammuz also had a sister 
Belili whose calling was, like that of Tammuz her brother, the 
care of plant growth. Tammuz also had a bride, the famous and 
treacherous Istar, the goddess of love, represented by the evening 
star; she was mistress of the neighbouring city of Erech, a little 
to the north-west, and on the other side of the Euphrates. The 
life of Tammuz at Eridu was romantic and his days ended in 
tragedy. There is a little poem, giving a picture of his home. 
There was a garden, a holy place, abundantly shaded with profuse 
leafage of trees whose roots went down deep into the waters over 
which Ea presided. His couch was hung under the rich foliage 
of the vine which his mother tended. There Tammuz dwelt and 

1 (9b) an mu-un-da-ur-ur (10) be-lum ina a-ga-gi-Su Sa-mu-u i-ta-na- 
ar-ra-ru-Su (11) dimmer M er Sur-ra-na Jci i-in-ga-bul-bul (12) U"Rammdnu 
ina e-zi-zi-$u ir-si-tum i-na-as-su (13) har-sag gal-gal-e Sa-ka-a ba-an-na- 
ku-eS (14) $a-du-u ra-bu-tu su-uh-hu-pu-Su (15) ib-ba-bi-ta ur-ra-bi-ta (16) a- 
na a-ga-gi-Su a-na e-zi-zi-Su (17) (?)-ge-bi-ta har-du-bi-ta (18) a-na Sd-gi-mi- 
Su a-na ra-mi-mi-Su (19) dim-me-ir an-na-ge an-na ba-an-dul-du-ne (20) Hani 
8a Sa-me-e a-na am-e i-te-lu-u (21) dim-me-ir ki-ge ki-a ba-an-bul-ne-es 
(22) Hani Sa ir-sitim a-na ir-ft-tim i-te-ir-bu (23) dimmer Babbar an ur- 
ra ba-da-u-8u-ru (24) ina i-Sid ame-e i-te-ru-ub (25) dimmer Si$-M an 
ba-da-kabar (26) ina e-lat Same-e ir-ta-bi (IV R. 28, 2). 

there was his shrine. His dwelling of foliage in his youthful days 
was symbolic of the domain in which the virtue of his power was 
to be exercised. His real home was in heaven, for from heaven 
the virtue of plant-growth precedes with the heat of the sun. But 
his connection with heaven had been forgotten, except in remini- 
scence found in legend. In the legend of Adapa, for instance, we 
find a hint of it. Tammuz and his companion GiSzida are seen 
mounting up to heaven where they receive stations as door-keepers 
in the gate of Ami's house; in heaven they properly belong. 

The descent of Tammuz to the lower world implies that he 
died, but the accounts have not made a direct statement of how 
he died, or what was the cause of his death. Perhaps we may 
conceive of the event of his death as having taken place at Eridu 
before the service of lamentation had developed into a cult honored 
at the court of Sargon of Akkad, where a temple was built for 
Tammuz after northern Babylonia had gained the ascendency over 
southern Babylonia. The literal cause of his death was that he was 
not capable of making plant-growth a continuous process. The 
power of the heat of the sun as the summer advanced was superior 
to the virtue which Tammuz possessed over plant-life. The fierce 
heat of the summer caused vegetation to take a paler hue; then 
the germs of decay entered; slowly and surely the face of the land 
was assuming the same state that existed before the power of 
Tammuz appeared to quicken the blade of grass and the fruit-bud 
of the early spring. So Tammuz was banished to the lower world. 
Romantically his entrance to the abode of the dead was due to 
the hand which Istar had in the events of his life. She had many 
lovers, and she betrayed them all. Her betrayal in the case of 
Tammuz consisted in not aiding him in her sphere as great mother 
in the production of life on earth. Had she supplemented his 
effort and made the earth continue to bear and bring forth, counter- 
acting the effect of the deadly heat of the summer solstice and the 
destructive wind of the south, the gardens and the fruit orchards 
over whose productiveness Tammuz presided would have enjoyed 
perennial fruitage, and Gilgames would never have had to take 
up the sad accusation against Itar: 

"Tammuz, the spouse of thy youth, 
Thou compellest to weep year after year." 1 
Also there had never gone up the song of lamentation: 
"He went down to meet the nether world, 
He has sated himself, Mamas' caused him to perish 
To the land of the dead. 

1 (46) a-na Dumu-zi ha-mi-ri $u-[uh-]ri-ti-ki (47) at-ta a-na Sat-ti 
bi-tak-ka-a tal-ti-mi-Su (BN. Tafel VI). 


With mourning was he filled on the day 
When he fell into great sorrow." 1 

According to another story of the fate of Tammuz, Itar was 
the victim of sudden and violent passion, and in a fit of anger 
for disregard of her command she had smitten him down, just as 
she crushed the aZ/aZ/w-bird she loved: 

"Thou didst crush him and break his pinions. 

In the woods he stands and laments, 

'0 my pinions'." 2 

Also as she cast out of her sight the lion: 

"Thou didst love a lion of perfect strength, 

Seven and seven times thou didst bury him in the corners." 3 
The origin of the service of weeping for Tammuz is an in- 
teresting legend. When Istar had slain her lover, she hastened, 
like the going down of the evening star, to the lower world in 
search of waters to restore him to life. She searches long, passing 
through all the compartments of Hades. The story does not give 
details of her finding Tammuz , but instead, a scene of his burial 
is introduced: 

"To Tammuz, her youthful consort 

Pour out pure waters, costly oil." 4 

A scene of the mourning for Tammuz is also introduced, which 
may be taken as the original lamentation, all other summer solstice 
weepings being anniversaries of this original one. His sister is 
there lamenting: 

"0 my only brother, let me not perish!" 5 
And a great company of mourners sing dirges by the accom- 
panyment of the flute and follow the instruction which Tammuz, 
though dead, seems to be giving then and there : 

"On the day of Tammuz play for me, 

On the flute of uknu and samtu! 

With it play for me! With it play for me! 

1 (23) il-lak i-lak ana i-rat ir-si-tim (25) uS-ta-bar-ri w SamaS ir- 
ta-bi-Su ana ir-?i-tim mi-tu-ti (27) ni-iz-za-tu ma-li i-na u-um im-ku-tu-ma 
ina i-dir-tim (IV R. 30, 2). 

2 (49) tam-ha-?i-8u-ma kap-pa-Su tal-te-bir (50) iz-za-az ina ki-Sa- 
tim i-Sis-si kap-pi (BN. Tafel VI). 

3 (51) ta-ra-mi-ma neSu ga-mi-ir e-mu-ki (52) 7 u 1 tu-ufy-tar-ri-i8-&u 
$u-ut-ta-a-ti (BN. Tafel VI). 

4 (47) a-na # Dumu-zi ha-mir si-ih-ru-ti-Sa (48) me il-lu-ti ra-am- 
me-ik Samnu tabu (from Istar' s Descent into Hades. K. 162. Reverse. 
CT. XV, Plate 47. Also IV R. 31). 

5 (55) a-fyi e-du la ta-fyab-bil-an-ni (from Tatar's Descent into Hades. 
K. 162. Reverse. CT. XV", Plate 47. Also IV R. 31). 


male and female mourners! 

That the dead may arise and inhale incense I" 1 

Of course the story is not finished and the circle of events 
not completed without the resurrection of Tammuz. In a Chaldaean 
intaglio there is a picture of Tammuz rejuvenated on the knees 
of Istar (see Clercq Vol. I, Plate IX, No. 83). Some forms of 
the story must include his return to the earth, and the complete 
service of lamentation must have been sometimes supplemented 
by a service of joy in which the idea of resurrection was significant. 

Though the original lamentation was an expression of grief 
for Tammuz dead, the fully developed ceremony was an expression 
of several pathetic ideas. It was accompanied with sacrifice and 
offerings of wine. In Babylonia the commemoration was observed 
every year on the second day of the fourth month, called the 
month of Tammuz. It was not only a weeping for dead Tammuz, 
but a weeping for dead vegetation. The dying leaf had a mourner. 
The withered stock had a sympathizing friend. For the blasted 
blade of grass there was shed a tear. For the barren tree bereft 
of golden foliage and luscious fruit there went up a cry of sym- 
pathy. The ceremony was an expression of sadness that came over 
the people as the oppression of the heat of summer bore down 
upon them, the water supply being reduced, vegetable life put out 
and human life consequently made almost unendurable by the de- 
privation and heat of summer. The time of weeping was one for 
the expression of personal sorrow that lurks in almost every heart. 
The wail of anguish was a relief to souls burdened with their own 
peculiar griefs. The soul found relief in lifting up the voice at- 
tuned to some form of elegy. There came a relief like the rolling 
of the burden of guilt from the breast. The ceremony was one that 
embraced in its performance the expression of confession. It was, how- 
ever, performed with the consciousness that the drought of summer 
was but for a season, and that there was to follow a period of happier 
existence, as the succeeding winter should merge into a new spring. 

Tammuz was supposed to leave the land with the season 
when the spring growth was completed, to come back again in 
the following year. He is considered as dead, but his death is 
not an absolute one. He tells the mourners what to do as they 
gather about his bier. According to some allusions he seems also 
to be a lord, as it were, in the bowels of the earth, preparing the 
inner earth for putting forth a new stock of vegetation, as spring 
shall come. Hence, the hymn to Tammuz in this Thesis calls him 

1 (56) ina u-me * Dumu-zi el-la-an-ni malil atmu u k n i abnu 
it-ti-Su el-la-an-ni (57) it-ti-Su el-la-an-ni a*" ER (A.SI) pi- u zinn&u ER 
(A.&I) Pi- A.Sl (58) mituti li-lu-nim-ma kuf-ri-in li-i?-?i-nu (from IStar's 
Descent into Hades. K. 162. Reverse. CT. XV, Plate 47. Also IV R. 31). 


"the generator of the lower world". His association with his friend 
GiSzida substantiates more fully the idea of his resurrection. To give 
vitality to his work he still maintains his old personality of sun-god, 
and to him again is given a seat in heaven, as the Adapa legend shows : 

"On mounting up to heaven, 

At the gate of Anu 

Tammuz and Gi&zida were stationed." 1 

The story of Tammuz seems to have taken deep and almost 
universal hold of the imagination and sympathy of mankind. The 
weeping for Tammuz is said to have been maintained by the 
Babylonians till a very late period. Similar stories to that of the 
Tammuz legend existed in about the same period of history among 
the Phoenicians, the Hebrews, the Greeks and the Egyptians, the 
most of these accounts having a common origin; if they have 
more than one origin, they seem nevertheless to blend in the main 
into one story. It is said that in the Phoenician town of Gebal 
by the Mediterranian on the road leading from the people of the 
east to those of the west, there is a yearly lamentation over the 
death of their sun-god, the beloved AStoreth, who had been slain 
by a cruel hand, just as the spring verdure was cut down by the 
hot blasts of summer. The women, tearing their hair, disfiguring 
their faces and cutting their breasts, sent up a cry to heaven: 
"0 my brother!" Across the sea by the way of Cyprus, the cry is 
said to have been earned to Greece where it found embodiment in 
the story of Adonis and Aphrodite. Possibly, however, the Greek 
story may be indigenous. Adonis lost his life while hunting, thrust 
through the thigh with the tusk of a wild boar. After death he 
was in great favour with Persephone who finally yielded to the 
entreaties of the inconsolable Aphrodite, and Adonis spent one half 
of the year with his celestial mistress and the other half with his 
infernal one. How much place the annual weeping for a departed 
one had among the Hebrews may be inferred to some extent by 
the mention made in the Scriptures of the service. Zechariah 
speaks of the well-known mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley 
of Megiddon, and Amos refers to the custom of mourning for an 
only son. Ezekiel says that the Lord brought him to Jehovah's 
house *and behold, there sat the women weeping for Tammuz". 
Jeremiah goes a step further and gives us the refrain which was 
used in the weeping: "Ah me! Ah my brother!" The parallel story 
in Egypt had for its hero the god Osiris who, representing goodness, 
upon being slain by a foe, became judge of the dead, though his 
soul continued in existence among men. 

1 (2) a-na Sa-me-e i-na e-li-Su a-na ba-ab ^u A-ni i-na 
(3) i-na ba-a-bu #" A-ni # Dumu-zi ttu Gi&-zi-da iz-za-az-zu (from the 
Legend of Adapa and the South Wind. TEA. Vol. Ill, 240. Rev.). 

Transliteration, Translation and 

Chapter I 

Tablet 13963, Plate 10, Hymn to Bel 

1. ^u-mu-un na-am-zu-ka na-hm- se-ir-ma-al 

lord of wisdom, supreme by thyself! 

2 dimmer Mu-ul-lU u-mu-un na-hm-zu-ka .... Se-ir-ma-al nl(IM)- 

Bel , lord of wisdom, supreme by thyself! 

3. a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil u-mu-un-e kur-kur-ra 
father Bel, lord of the lands ! 

4. a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil u-mu-un dug(KA.)-ga zi(d)-da 
father Bel, lord of righteous command! 

5 a . a dimmer Mu-ul-Ul siba sag gig(MI)-ga 
father Bel, shepherd of the black-headed! 

6. a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil -<fe(NE) gala wi(IM)-fe-wa 
father Bel, the only all-seeing one! 

7. a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil ama erim($AB)-na di-di 

father Bel, the lord that executest judgment on thy enemies! 

8. a-a dim* Mu-ul-lil itsn$(r)-la ma-ma 
father Bel, the power of the lands! 

9. ama ria-a gu ne-stg(PA) gan-nu ki 

The bull of the pasture, the bull that encompassest the pro- 
ductive land! 

10. d * mmer Mu-ul-lil nin kar-ra ki damal-ra 
Bel, the bountiful lord of the broad land I 

11. li-mu-un mu-ud-na du(KAK) sag-ma-al ki 

The lord of creation, the creator, the true head of the land! 

12. w-tnw-un zalQ$I)'lah(TJD)-na ga nMnusf-rfm(AAN) da-ma-alla 
The lord whose shining oil is milk for an extensive progeny! 

18. ti-wm-un silim(DT)-ma-a-ni erf ir-ir 

The lord whose decrees bind together the city, 

14. dii na-a-ni a(TD) am-e gal-la 

Whose powerful dwelling-place (is the seat of) a great command, 

15. kur dimmer Babbar (UD)-g(UD.DU)-fo Jew dimmer Babbar(UV)- 

From the land of the rising sun to the land of the setting sun ! 

16. kitr-ra fo-mu-un nu-um-ti za-e li-mu-un ab-da-me-en 
mountain, the lord of life, thou the lord indeed art! 


17. d ** |WI * r Mu-ul-lH kur-kur-ra ga-Sd-an nu-um-ti nin-zu ga-sd-an 


Bel of the lands, lord of life, lord of wisdom, lord indeed 
thou art! 

18. e-lum nl(IM) an-na a-kad za-da $d mu-e-da-mal(\Gr) 

mighty one, dread of heaven, royal one indeed thou art! 

19 dimmer Jf M . M /.^ M en^) dimmer-ri-ne za-da 3d mu-e-da-mal(lGr) 
Bel, very lord of gods thou indeed art! 

20. a-a <" Mu-ul'ltl mu-lu gu md($AR)-md(SA.K)-me-en mu-lu 

Se ma(SAK)-ma(SAR)-we-en 

father BS1, who causest vegetation to sprout, who causest 
grain to grow 

21. dimmer Mu-ul-Ul me-Zaw(NE)-ZM ^<r(KIL)-ra ha mu-ni-ib-( )- 

Bel, before thy great glory may they be (in fear?)! 

22. hu-e an-na ha-e tu(r)-ra sa(LIB)-nl(lW) ma-ni-ib-si 

The birds of heaven and the fish of the sea are filled with 
fear of thee! 

23. a-a <*"" Mu-ul-lil-K da-da mah M-e-^n(DU) sag-e-zi si- 

ba-e e-nab 

father Bel, in great strength thou goest, the head of life, 
the shepherd of the stars! 

23 - 

24. b-mu-un ka- na-im-^o(MAL) iz-ba en ga mu-e-^tn(DU) gfn(GtI) 

si ft'-5w(KU) me-a 

lord, the mouth of production thou openest, as a prolific 
city thou goest, the reed for the fulness of life thou art. 

25. a-a dimmfr Mu-ul-lil sag zi sag n(r)-la Su ti ba-ni-ib-ag 

father Bel, the head of life, the head of strength, the power 
of life thou makest thyself! 

26. su-gil nis-ia mu-bi im 

Altogether there are twenty-five lines in the tablet. 

27. gr(A.I) Urn-ma 
Hymn of praise. 

This composition is a hymn of praise to B61, who is directly 
addressed. His name, Mu-ul-lil, appears in 14 of the 25 lines of 
the hymn, in which he is called distinctively "father", the title 
occurring 8 times. 

The god is addressed in the second person, as is seen in line 
16, where za-e, the personal pronoun of the second person, is 
applied to him, and also in the pronominal phase of the second 
person, za-da, found in lines 18 and 19, not to mention other 
less striking symbols of the second person singular. 

The hymn consists of many laudatory epithets descriptive of 
Bel's divine nature and work. His fatherhood and lordship are 
dwelt upon. He is a righteous and all-wise father. His lordship 
extends not only over the land, but up into the air as well. He 
provides subsistence for the creatures of earth, being also the 
organizer of city and state. He superintends also the operations 
of nature in the atmosphere being tie dread of heaven, the lord 
of gods, the occasion of fear among the birds and fishes, the shep- 
herd of the storms (or stars). 

The time of the origin of this hymn is a matter of conjecture. 
The form of the signs offers some evidence. What the early kings 
say of Bel also throws some light on the subject. The signs are, 
of course, later than the picture-writing of the hieroglyph, and 
also later than the linear script suited to stone. These signs are 
made in clay, hence the wedge appears. The design of the signs 
used here has met with some transformation since the hieroglyph 
was used, but it has not yet reached the chaste and symmetrical 
form given by the hand of the Assyrian. In short the signs of 
this hymn are old Babylonian, almost identical with those used in 
the inscriptions of Eannattun, Entemena, Gndea and Hammurabi. 
There are, however, some later and even New-Babylonian signs 
among them, pointing perhaps to transcription subsequent to the 
original composition. 

_ 24 

There is no mention of any city in the hymn, as there is in 
the hymn to Sin, but this hymn probably had its origin in Nippur 
which was the great religious centre of Babylonia in the pre- 
dynastic period, when kings ascribed their successes to B61 and 
brought their booty to Nippur, calling Bel "the lord of the lands." 


1. u-mu-un na-hm-zu-ka na-hm se-ir-ma-al n\-\te-nd\ 

lord of wisdom, supreme by thyself! 

u-mu-un means "being lord", u equalling "lord" and mu-un 
equalling "being", u-mu-un is a phonetic representation of umun 
= b&lu, (Br. 9475). umun is sometimes ideographically represented 
by the sign GIGURU, the corner wedge (Br. 8659), which signifies 
"depress", "overpower", "be powerful", "rule", umun may be shortened 
either to w, mun or un, giving to GIGURU three values for 
"lord", M, un and umun. umun, which is ES, has an EK value, 
ugun. In line 17, we shall meet with another word for "lord"; 
viz., ga-Sd-an. 

u: the sign IGI-DIBBU alone means "lord". It has a well- 
known Assyrian equivalent, labdru, "be old", (Br. 9464). Brummer 
explains the sign correctly as follows: IGI-DIBBU is a compound 
sign and equals 1, "eye", plus LU, "take away", hence the meaning 
"take away the eye", "become old", "elderly", "lord", (SVA. 27). 

mu-un contracted to mun is cognate with me-en which equals 
basu, "to be", as in za-e-me-en (Br. 10404). We shall meet the 
form mu-un as a verbal prefix. 

mu here is simply a dialectic form of me (MSL., p. 240). 
mu as a Sumerian value is attested by the sign-name MU. We 
shall meet with MU in the name Mu-ul-lil, also as a suffix and 
in other ways. The MU of our text is old Babylonian. It is the 
MU of Ur-Gur and Gudea (see brick of Ur-Gur, No. 90009, CT. XXI, 
and Gudea's Cylinder A, Col. XVIII, line 27, in Dec. 36). 

un is plainly cognate with en which is so commonly represented 
by the sign ENU. The sign UN we shall meet again with the 
value kcdama. The UN of our text is a very ancient sign (see 
Cone of Eannatum, Col. I, CT. XXI, Tablet 30062). 

na-hm-zu-ka consists of noun, na-hm-zu and postposition ka. 

na-hm-zu is an abstract noun composed of the abstract prefix 
na-hm and the stem zu. 

na-hm equals simtu, "fortune", (Br. 1609 and HW. 654) and is 
a dialectic form of nam (Br. 2103) which is a common abstract prefix. 

na is a Sumerian value of the sign NANU. The value is 
simply syllabic here. The sign originally signified "stone". Our 


NA is found both in old Babylonian tablets and in New-Babylonian 

km (ES) also is only syllabic here. The sign has the EK 
value ag and is used ideographically. 

zu: the sign representing zu has only one value, presenting a 
rather uncommon circumstance in Sumerian. zu means "know", 
also "be wise", and may equal nimeku, "wisdom", (Br. 136), but 
the author preferred to say na-hm-zu, "the fortune of wisdom". 

ka, sign-name KAGU, is a postpositive sign of the genitive. 
The sign KAGU (discussed below) is often used in this way, but 
it has several values and is used to express a large number of 
ideas, ka as a postposition is a dialectic form of </e(KIT). 

se-ir-ma-al is ES for the EK n*r-gal, s changing to n and m 
to a (MSL. p. XI). It is translated into Assyrian by the word 
eteuu. Se-ir-ma-al consists then of two parts; stem Se-ir and suffix 
ma-al. Strictly, Se-ir is "lord" and Se-ir-ma-al is "lordship". 

Se-ir: e and i appear generally to be distinct sounds, but they 
combine, just as the two M'S combine in mu-un, making mun, and 
as the two a's combine in na-hm, making nam. Evidently the 
weaker sound is absorbed by the stronger, hence Se-ir becomes 
s6r, "ruler", which could be represented by NISIGti (JA., 1905, 
p. 113, also Br. 4306). 

se is perhaps a Semitic value coming from s&u, "grain". The 
original sign is a picture of a head of grain like wheat or oats. 
The name of the sign is U-UM. The sign occurs in line 20 as 
an ideogram. 

ir is also Semitic value of the sign GAK-GUNU. We shall 
meet the sign used as a verb equal to kamd, "bind". 

ma-al, phonetically written for mal, is an ending which adds 
to ser the idea of "having"; hence se-ir-ma-al means "having rule". 

ma: we shall find MAMU used mostly as a noun, but it may 
occur as a verbal prefix or as a phonetic complement. 

al: the sign has only one value, al, whose use is principally 
syllabic. The sign-name is ALLU. 

nl-te-na: nl-te is the main word with na as a suffix. 

nl-te: nl and te stand related to each other as object and 
cognate verb, meaning "fear a fear". The affinity of nl and te is 
shown by the fact that the sign for nl, called IMMU, may have 
the value tu (see Br. 8355), then the object and verb would be 
tu-te, "fear a fear" (see Fossey in JA., 1905, p. 128). nl-te may 
mean "self" just as nl may stand not only for "fear" but for that 
which causes fear as Rammdnu, "the storm-god", and then by way 
of erroneous association for ramdnu, "self". 

nl: the sign IMMU is one of the principal signs that originally 

- 26 

denoted 'the quarter of the heavens". It is used to signify ,storm" 
and many ideas connected with storm. 

te: TEMMENU originally meant "orientation", then "to approach 
hostilely"; hence nl-te meant "approach of storm". 

na is an indeterminate suffix, but the context shows that it 
means "thy", so that nl-te-na means "thyself (see na above). 

2. dimmer Mu-ul-lil u-mu-un na-am-zu-ka .... Se-ir-ma-al 

Bel, lord of wisdom, supreme by thyself! 

dimmer. ^ ne gjgjj &N here has the value dimmer. In the great 
bilingual penitential Psalm, K. 2811 (IV E. plate 10), instead of 
the single sign AN, we have the spelling dim-me-er (see lines 3, 
7 and others). If this were an EK composition, the sign AN might 
be dingir, dt-in-gir, but in the words u-mu-un and Se-tr-ma-al 
which we have already had, we have evidence that this is an ES 
composition, hence AN here is to be read dimmer. 

Mu-ul-lil: Bel has only one name in this hymn; namely, Mul- 
Zz7. In the two tablets, 29644 and 29623, following this tablet, 
Be 1 ! is called En-lil (see the colophons). The word Mu-ul-lil divides 
into two parts, Mu-ul, which contracts into Mul, and HI. 

Mu-ul: Mul is ES; En is EK. Both Mul and En mean "lord", 
so that either Mul-lil or En-lil means "lord of fulness". It is 
probable that mul (wul) is cognate with en (el). 

mu (as a value is discussed in line 1). 

ul: the sign is composed of GEPU and GUTTU. The value 
ul is Semitic. We shall meet below this sign with the value ru 
meaning "perfect". 

Ul: the name of the sign is KlTU. Ul in magic writings 
means "demon", i. e., a spirit which may be either good or bad. 
Originally the sign indicated "structure", from which idea comes 
the postpositional use of the sign with the value ge. Sdru, "wind", 
with the value III is a secondary meaning of thes sign. 

u-mu-un na-am-zu-ka (occurring in line 1 , was discussed 
there). The fragments following -Jca do not give a sure clue as 
to what the signs were before the erasure. After dimmer Mu-ul-lil 
perhaps the whole of the second line was precisely like the first. 

se-ir-ma-al nl-te-na (explained in line 1). 

3. a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil u-mu-un-e kur-Jcur-ra 
father Bel, lord of the lands! 

a-a is probably for ad-da, ad meaning "protector". Exactly 
how a-a comes to be used in the place of ad-da may not be 
determined with certainty. The explanation may lie in the relation 
between "water", B seed" and "father", a-a also seems to be a 


softened form of ad-da, a means "seed" or more primarily "water". 
The sign is an ideographic picture of dripping water. 

dimmer Mu-ul-h'l (explained in line 2). 

u-mu-un-e divides into the word u^nu-un and the prolongation 
vowel e, possibly demonstrative in sense (see e farther on). 

u-mu-un is not elsewhere in this hymn lengthened to u-mu- 
un-e, but u-mu-un occurs nine times. 

kur-Jcur-ra is the plural form of noun, kur, plus postposition ra. 

kur-kur: in Sumerian the general way of denoting the plural 
in nouns is by doubling the root (see ASK. p. 140), whereas the 
doubled root in a verb means an intensified or causative stem. 
There are five other cases of doubling the root in the hymn: di-di, 
line 7, ma-ma, line 8, ir-ir, line 13, md-md, line 20; and da-da, 
line 23. 

kur: the sign KtTRU in the old linear form represented pic- 
torially "mountain tops". The value kur has three very common 
Assyrian equivalents, sadu, 'mountain", irsitu, 'earth" and mdtu, 
"land", all closely related to each other. 

ra is a common postposition signifying "unto". Perhaps ra 
sometimes serves merely as a vowel of prolongation, the r at the 
same time making a double of the final consonant of the preceding 
word. In such a case ra is called a phonetic complement, while 
it also helps to determine the value of the sign immediately pre- 
ceding. To illustrate, the sign KtJRU being followed by RARft 
cannot be read gin nor mad. ra can also be the sign of the geni- 
tive (Br. 6367). 

4. a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil u-mu-un dug-ga zi-da 
father Bel, lord of righteous command! 

a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil u-mu-un (explained in lines 1, 2 and 3). 

dug-ga: dug is the value of KAGU to be used here, as is at 
once suggested by the phonetic complement ga. 

dug: a very common meaning of dug is kibitu, "command" 
(Br. 532). 

ga is merely the vowel of prolongation a with the final g of 
the preceding stem. 

zi'da: zi being followed by da gives the impression that it 
should be read zid with da as a phonetic complement. A final 
consonant in the first syllable, however, is not always a necessity. 
The name of the temple of Nabu at Borsippa is not read E-zid-da, 
but JZ-zi-da or it-zida. 

zi here equals tmnu, 'right". It may sometimes equal naptitu 
(see below, line 25.) 

5. a-a dimmfr Mu-ul-lil siba sag gig-ga 

father Bel, shepherd of the blackheaded! 


siba equals r&u (Br. 5688). The sign is compounded from 
PA and LU and means "staff-bearer", since PA signifies "staff" and 
LU means "hold", "seize". The use of the sign is confined almost 
entirely to the idea of shepherd of animals and then figuratively 
to that of governor of men. 

sag: the sign with the value sag, called SANGU or SAGGU, 
is the common sign to represent "head" which is expressed in 
Assyrian either by rdsu or kakkadu (see Br. 3522 and 3513). The 
sign occurs in many compounds. 

gig-ga: gig is the value of MI suggested by the phonetic 
complement ga. 

gig: the sign is composed of the corner wedge U and the 
sign TATTAB and means "darkness". The sign really signifies 
"entering into depression", gi perhaps is a dialectism for mi. 

ga = phonetic complement, sag gig-ga means a race of men, 
evidently here the Babylonians, the people in particular over whom 
Bel exercised rule. The term is certainly not one of depreciation. 
It merely shows that the Babylonians were swarthy. On the other 
hand, "blackheaded" may be intended to mean the human race in- 
habiting the earth in contradistinction to the bright celestial beings 
(see CDAL. 878). Cyrus, in his Broken Cylinder, seems to use 
the phrase as meaning the Babylonians. His words are: nisd sal- 
mat kaTckadi sd ti-sd-ak-si-du ka-ta-a-su. "The blackheaded people 
whom he caused his hands to conquer" (V B. 35, 13). 

6. a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil i-de gaba nl-te-na 
father Bel, the- only all-seeing one! 

i-de, phonetic representation of ide, which in the EK dialect 
is represented by the sign IGtl with the value igi which in Assyrian 
means inu, "eye" (Br. 4004, 4003 and 9273). ide is ES for the 
EK igi. We have the sign IG^T in the colophon where it occurs 
with AU, "water", a-ide meaning "water of the eye". 

i is represented by GITTtT ("five"). The value z, however, is, 
of course, entirely syllabic here. Notice that there is a slight 
difference between the Babylonian GITTfr and the Assyrian GITTlX 
In Assyrian, GITT& consists of two wedges followed by three. In 
Babylonian it consists of three followed by two, and in the linear 
form the sign consists of three horizontal lines followed by two (see 
AL. p. 125, No. 105). 

de represented by IZtl and having the value bit means "fire". 
The sign in its hieroglyphic form is probably a picture of building 
a fire by the friction of an instrument against a piece of wood. 
Hence the sign is properly composed of AM and GI, AM re- 
presenting something having a head and GI meaning "wood". The 
sign in our text is old Babylonian and may be found in Gudea 


(Cylinder B, Col. IV, line 13, in Dec. Plate 34). Possibly i-de 
could be explained as if i were an abstract prefix and de as refer- 
ring to the light of the eye, hence i-de means "eye". 

gdba is the common word for irfu, "breast" (Br. 4477). The 
sign GABBU is a double MU-sign meaning "fulness". From this 
idea of "fulness" we easily derive the idea of "open" (Br. 4490). 
So that ide gaba means "open eyed" The two MU's appear en- 
tirely separate in the Babylonian form of the sign as they do not 
in the Assyrian form (see TC. p. 18). Our GABBU is not so old 
as the GABBU of the Stele des Vautours, but is like Gudea's 
GABBU (see Cylinder A, Col. XXI, line 25, in Dec. Plate 34). i-de 
gaba is about equal to "omniscient". 

nl-te-na may be rendered as in line 1, "thyself," or perhaps 
we could say "only". 

7. a-a darner Mu-ul-til ama erim-na di-di 

father Bel, the lord that executest judgment on thy enemies! 

ama: the meaning for AMMU with the value ama is rimu, 
"bull". AMMU may mean "lord", belu (Br. 4543). In the sign 
AMMU we have the hieroglyphs for the bull's head and the mountain 
combined. In the oldest Babylonian form, of course, lines are used 
instead of wedges. In Assyrian the sign has been reduced to two 
horizontal wedges placed before the sign DUGU. AMMU represents 
"the bull of the mountains". In line 9 we shall have the sign 
GUTTU which represents "the bull not of the mountains", i. e. "the 
domestic bull" or "the ox". The sign is the same in form as AMMU, 
except that the little inside wedges representing the mountains are 

enm-na: erim is taken to be the right value rather than lah, 
because of the following na which serves as a phonetic complement, 
m and n being closely related because of their similar indeterminate 
nasal qualities. 

erim affords a meaning that seems to suit the context, erim 
must be equal to the Assyrian sabu which must like the Hebrew 
saba have in it the idea of "service". Such expressions as the 
following bring out the idea of "service", erim-bal-ku-a, "slave 
employed at the water wheel" (OBTR. Plate 91, Obv.). erim-bal- 
gub-ba, "slave who carries a hatchet" (OBTR. Plate 17, Obv.). 
A common meaning for erim is "warrior", but the warrior as 
a soldier rather a general. Then from the idea "soldier of the 
enemy", we come to the idea "enemy", which seems to be the 
meaning here. 

na, while serving phonetically, is also here a pronominal suffix. 

di-di can equal kasddu (Br. 9529 and 9563). The judgment 
implied by di-di, accordingly, may be that executed on an enemy. 


di-di is more than pronouncing sentence. It is inflicting the 

di may be, a value borrowed from the Assyrian ddnu, "to 
judge", but this is uncertain, as such an occurrence implies Semitic 
influence which could not have amounted to much if this hymn 
was written at a very early period. 

8. a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil u-nt-la ma-ma 
father Bel, the power of the land! 

b-nd-la equals noun it-n& = emtiku, "power" and phonetic 
complement la. 

b: IGI-DIBBU might be confounded with HUL. It is rather 
carelessly written here, u, we have seen in line 1, may mean 
"lord" in the sense of being "elderly". & might mean "mountain"; 
if so it would be in the sense of being an "ancient mountain". 
& here, however, must be an abstract prefix (MSL. p. XVII). &, for 
example, is used as such a prefix with tu, u-tu being equal to 
"offspring" (Br. 9470). 

n: PIRIKKU in passing from the old Babylonian form which 
we have in our text meets with much change. The form in our 
text comes near to being that of the oldest known. Even in 
IJammurabi it begins to take the form of the Assyrian PIRIKKU 
(see CH. XLIV. 24. Plate LXXXI). PIRIKKU with the value gir 
which is EK for the ES ner is the common sign for "foot" 
(Br. 9192). With the meaning of "power" it generally has the 
value ne (Br. 9184). 

la: LALU here is essentially the same as the old linear picture 
which may readily be found in old Sumerian script, given also 
by Delitzsch (see AL. p. 122, No. 31). la means "fulness" like 
the Assyrian lalu, but its use in our text is entirely phonetic. We 
should rather expect ra here. Note that in line 10, we have 
ra where we should expect la, and in line 12, we have da- 
ma-al-la where the la is regular, just as ra is regular in kur- 
kur-ra of line 3. 

ma-ma: MAMU in its original form is an old hieroglyph re- 
presenting the earth, so that "earth" or "the land" is a common 
meaning for ma and equal to the Assyrian mdtu which probably 
comes from Sumerian ma, "land", and da, "strong" = DADDU (see 
line 1 for further comment). 

9. ama ria-a git ne-sig gan-nu ki 

The bull of the pasture, the bull that encompassest the 
productive land. 

ama, which in line 7 was rendered by "lord", must mean here 
"bull", as the word nh-a limits us to this meaning, na-a means 


"pasture", nh-a could be taken as an adjective, descriptive of the 
attitude of the bull, i. e., that of lying down quietly. We have 
nh-a again in line 14. a is simply phonetic here (see line 3). 

nh: the sign for the value na has no sign-name. In almost 
this form, the sign is easily found in the text of Gudea (see 
Cylinder B, Col. XVI, line 19, in Dec. 35). The form in our text 
is very near to the original linear form and differs much from the 
Assyrian. The ordinary meaning of nit is given by the Assyrian 
rabdsu "lie down", kindred to the Hebrew rabds. 

gu, the value here for GUTTU, is commonly rendered in 
Assyrian by alpu "ox". The sign represents the bull's head with 
horns. Historically the sign has three forms, the old Babylonian 
linear form, the old Babylonian wedge-form and the Assyrian wedge- 
form. The old Babylonian linear and wedge-forms are the same, 
except that wedges occur in the latter where simple straight lines 
appear in the former. The Assyrian form is composed of two 
horizontal wedges, one upright wedge and two little corner wedges 
(AL. p. 128, No. 164). The difference between GUTTU aad AMMU 
is significant (see note on line 7). 

ne-sig: ne-sig-ga equals kamu, "bind" (Br. 4626). The meaning 
"bind" fits here. 

ne is not an unusual indeterminate verbal prefix (see MSL. 
p. XXIX). 

sig = PA , probably with the value sig, may equal kamu 
(Br. 5575). Hence ne-sig is a verb, ne being the prefix and sig 
the stem. 

gan-nu: the value gan is indicated by the following nu. 

gan with complementary nu is represented here by an ancient 
form of the sign which is very different from the Assyrian form. 
The meaning here must be expressed by dahddu, "plenty", kindred 
to alidu (IV R. 9, A 24a). 

ki: the KIKU of our text is New-Babylonian (see the Cyrus 
Cylinder, I R. 35, line 4). The early linear form is well represented 
by the wedge-form of Hammurabi (CH. Col. I, line 10, plate I). 
A picture of the earth was probably attempted in the archaic 
linear form. It should be noted that space is represented con- 
ventionally by parallel horizontal lines included in a rectangle, 
orientated to the four quarters of the heavens. 

10. di mmer Mu-ul-lil nin kar-ra ki damal-ra 
Bel, the bountiful 'lord of the broad land ! 

dimmer Mu-ul-lil (see line 2 for notes). 
nin in the sense of b&lu, "lord", gives a good context. 
kar-ra equals noun kar and postposition ra\ kar = "plenty" 
(see MSL. 123). The text however may be dam-kar-ra. 


Note that ra may be taken as a postposition of the genitive 
as well as phonetic complement (see on line 3). 

ki (see on line 9). 

damal-ra equals adjective plus postposition. 

damal, ES for the EK dagal, with the meaning of rapsu, 
"extensive" (Br. 5452). The sign name is AMtf. The sign is com- 
posed of two signs one within the other, PISANNU, "house", the 
outer sign, and ANtf, "high", the inner sign, hence the meaning 
"large space", "extensive". 

11. u-mu-un mu-ud-na du sag-ma-al ki 

The lord of creation, the creator, the true head of the land ! 

u-mu-un (see line 1 for note). 

mu-ud-na may equal "creator" or "begetter", just as muh-na 
equals the Assyrian a-li'd (IV E. 9, 32 a), mu-ud is a phonetic 
representation of the word mud, whose sign is MUEN-DUGlX 
HU plus HI (Br. 2273). The word mud is equal to the Assyrian 
banu (Br. 2274). 

du: here we must let the sense govern us in deciding on a 
form which may be read either as KAK or NI. KAK with the value 
du equal to banu (Br. 5248) gives a meaning that fits smoothly 
with what precedes and follows. In their original forms KAK, NI 
and IR are similar yet entirely distinct signs. In the archaic 
linear form, KAK is a triangle with one of the angles pointing to 
the right. NI is a triangle with one of the angles pointing to the 
right and one upright line passing through the triangle. IE also 
is a triangle with one of the angles pointing to the right and 
two upright lines passing through the triangle. 

sag-ma-al equals noun sag, plus suffix ma-al. It could stand 
for sag-ga just as sag-mal can stand for sag-ga (Br. 3595). sag 
equals "head" (as in line 5). ma-al: if ma-al is taken a suffix (as 
in line 1), it stands for the signPJSANNU meaning sakdnu, "establish", 
or baSu, "exist", and is ES for the EK gal. 

ki (see line 9). 

12. u-mu-un zal lah-na ga nunuz-dm da-ma-al-la 

The lord whose shining oil is milk for an extensive progeny! 

u-mu-un (see line 1 for note). 

zal: NI means "oil". The Babylonian KAK, NI and IE should 
be distinguished from the Assyrian. In Assyrian the horizontal 
wedges are parallel and do not come to an angle at the right. 

lah-na: zal lah-na means "his shining oil", and the thought 
appears to be that Bel causes food to be produced to sustain 
successive generations. His oil is milk for many generations. 

- 33 

zal-lah is somewhat like the expression "finest oil" found in Assyrian 

lah: the signs HiSSU and ABU find their nearest approach 
to each other in the value lah. Both signs have this value with 
the meaning "brightness". 

na here is a suffix of the third person ; sometimes it is second 
person (see line 1). 

ga: our sign here is the old Babylonian GU which with its 
common value ga means sizbu, "milk". The archaic linear form 
represents the teat of the breast, ga occurs often as a phonetic 
complement (see line 4). 

nunuz-dm means "is multitudinous", nunuz: NUNUZ in this 
form is, as Delitzsch observes (HW. p 525b), New-Babylonian. In 
Assyrian it is composed of SAB and HI and in New-Babylonian 
of SAB and SE. Here it is equal to the Assyrian Upu, German 

dm: A.AN, equalling dm, is a well recognized verbal suffix 
used like the verb "to be"; for instance, dingir-ra dm means "is 
a god" and gal-la dm means "is great" (see SVA. p. 56). 

da-ma-al-la is composed of the adjective da-ma-al and the 
phonetic complement la. da-ma-al is the phonetic representation 
in ES of the sign AMU meaning rapSu (see line 10). 

13. it-mu-un silim-ma-a-ni eri ir-ir 

The lord whose decrees bind together the city. 

silim-ma-a-ni means "his decree". Thus, silim-ma-a equals 
noun, plus phonetic complement, plus vowel prolongation, silim: 
we have had the sign SARARU (in line 7), where it was given 
the value di\ here, however, the phonetic complement suggests 
the choice of the value silim, from which we derive the meaning 
"decree", although "salutation" is a more primary meaning expressed 
by the Semitic value silim (from sulmu). The sign is apparently 

ni is one of the common nominal suffixes of the third person. 
Note that Bel is addressed in the third person in this line, but 
we shall find him addressed in the second person again in line 16. 

eri is ES for the EK uru. This value is substantiated by 
the name of the city of Eridu = Eri-tu (see MSL. p. 105). The 
name of the sign is ALU. Our sign is old Babylonian and is not 
very different from the hieroglyphic form which is supposed to 
represent a city (eee AL. p. 121, No. 21). It differs considerably 
from the New-Babylonian ALU which is much like the Assyrian. 

ir-ir is an intensive form of the verb and therefore may be 
causative. Bel is supposed to have aided kings especially in cap- 
turing cities, ir may mean "bind", expressed by kamu, but kamu 



is not so often represented by IB as by DIBBU or LALLU. kamu 
may be represented by PA (see line 9). Although ir is said to 
be a Semitic value, it is used in this hymn syllabically and is the 
only value of the sign preserved (see line 1 and also du in line 11 
for further comment). 

14. du nh-a-ni a hm-e gal-la 

Whose powerful dwelling-place (is the seat of) a great 

du: the sign giving this value has two origins, one of which 
is represented by the value dul, meaning "cover" (Br. 9582). The 
other is represented by the value du and means "dwelling-place", 
rendered in Assyrian by subtu (Br. 9588). du really means "pre- 
scribed space". 

nh-a-ni means "his lying-down place", nh-a defines with more 
particularity the nature of the dwelling as "a lying-down place", 
"a permanent place of rest". Here we have du nh-a; above we 
have ama nh-a (line 9). 

a: IDU and DADDU come from the same ideogram which is 
the picture of the hand and the forearm, the fingers pointing to 
the left. The value id is supposed to be of Semitic derivation, 
from the root appearing in Assyrian as idu, "hand". The sign IDU 
also means "side", "wing", "horn", "power". Hence I render "power- 
ful" here, making it qualify du nh-a-ni. The sign in our text is 
old Babylonian; yet it seems to be a form that is approaching the 
Assyrian form. TA is also related to ID and DA and is used as 
DA sometimes is, as a postposition. 

hm-e, composed of prefix hm and stem e. hm: we have had 
the sign used phonetically (line 1). Here it is undoubtedly an 
abstract prefix (MSL. p. XVII), qualifying the following e. The 
sign is old Babylonian, readily found in old Babylonian inscriptions. 
It is a composite sign. The enclosure contains the sign IZU which 
is also composite. IZU however, as explained above (line 6), means 
"fire". So hm is primarily the "fire of love", hence the usual 
meaning "love". 

e: it is clear that e can equal kabu, "speak" (Br. 5843 and 
HW. 578 a). Hence hm-e must mean "speech". The sign is old 
Babylonian, as may be seen, for instance, by examining Hammurabi. 
It is called EGU. The New-Babylonian form comes nearer to the 
old Babylonian than the Assyrian does. This fact goes to show 
that the Assyrian signs are as a rule farther away from the archaic 
forms than the New-Babylonian signs are. The sign AU represented 
"water", but the sign EGfr represented the "waterditch", "canal". 
How e comes to mean kabu may perhaps be explained by its 
relation to the value i of KAGU which equals amdtu, "word . 


gal-la: gal, "great", is often followed by the phonetic com- 
plement la. 

15. kur dimmer Babbar-2-la kur dimmer Babbar-su-Su 

From the land of the rising sun to the land of the 
setting sun! 

kur (see on line 3). 

dimmer Babbar-d-ta equals ideogram for 'the sun", plus verb 
2 = "coming out", plus postposition "from". Dimmer Sabbar is the 
ordinary ideogram for # tt Hamas used of "the sun", as well as of 
"the god Saunas". Babbar is a value of HISSU which means "to 
be white". 

: = two signs, UD and DU, equivalent to this value, meaning 
asu, "come out", or "go out". The sign UD is a picture of the 
sun, and represents the rising sun; hence = "come forth". 

(a is a postposition meaning in this case "from", but often 
"in, into". TA in our text is old Babylonian and much like the 
linear form in early tablets. Nearly the same form can be found 
in Hammurabi also. But on the whole, the old Babylonian, the 
Assyrian and the New-Babylonian all differ from each other much. 
TA has a close relation to DA and ID (see on line 14). 

dimmer J3abbar-u-su equals ideogram for "the sun", plus su = 
"going in", plus postposition "to". 

su equals erebu, "enter in". Ideographically, &U means "bent 
over", or "depressed". 

su is a value of KU, as a postposition, meaning "unto". The 
sign is of rectangular form and has many values, consequently many 
meanings starting with the idea "enclosure". The governing force 
of su here reaches back over kur in the middle of the line, just 
as the governing force of ta goes back over kur at the beginning 
of the line. 

The beautiful expression of this line occurs more than once 
in Sumerian and Babylonian literature. As early as Lugalziggisi 
it appears in royal writings. Lugalziggisi speaks of his kingdom 
as extending "from the rising sun to the setting sun". Babbar-d-ta 
(UD.UD.DU.TA) Babbar-su-su (UD.&U.KU) (OBI. No. 87, Col. II, 
12 and 13). And Esarhaddon in Cylinder A says that "From the 
rising sun to the setting sun he marched without a rival", ul-tu 
si-it ^ u Sam-si a-di e-nb ^ u Sam-si it-tal-lah-u-ma ma-hi-ra la i-su-u 
(I E. 45, Col. I, 7 and 8). 

16. kur-ra u-mu-un nu-um-ti za-e u-mu-un ab-da-me-en 

mountain, the lord of life, thou the lord indeed art! 

kur-ra (see on line 3). 
u-mu-un (see on line 1). 



nu-um-ti occurs also in the next line and no doubt equals 
baldtu, "life". 

nu-um seems to be an abstracting prefix of the nature of 
nam as in nam-ti-la = baldtu (Br. 1697). nu-um-ti, however, 
may be a phonetic representation of nim, also written num which 
means elitu, "height" (Br. 1982 and 9011). According to this view, 
nu-um-ti might mean "the acme of life", just as nam-ti equals "the 
fortune of life"; hence "life in general". Or it might be suggested 
that num is really for nam, as a is known to differentiate some- 
times into w; ga for instance becomes gu (MSL. p. X). 

ft" equals baldtu, "life", and has its fuller form in tin, also 
equal to baldtu "live". 

za-e equals atta, "thou" (Br. 11762, also ASK. p. 139). 

ab-da-me-en equals "thou thyself art". The form consists of 
verbal prefix, infix and verb, as follows: ab, being an indeterminate 
prefix, may therefore be used of the second person (MSL. p. XXV). 
Mu is an old Babylonian sign pictorially representing "enclosed 
space", hence the meaning of "enclosure". It means, with the value 
e, "house", and, with the value ab, "sea", da is like &(ID) (line 14), 
ideographically represented by the picture of the hand and forearm 
(line 4). It means "side", also "strength". It is sometimes a re- 
flexive verbal infix (MSL. p. XXIV). me-en equals basu (Br. 10404). 
me also equals basu (Br. 10361) and the longer me-a equals basu 
(Br. 10459). en, therefore, is not an essential part of the word 
which means "be", me-en has no connection with ma-e, the 
personal pronoun of the first person, men, in fact, can be used 
of the second person and even of the third as well. The defining 
pronoun za-e here compels us to take me-en in the second person. 


17. d immer Mu-ul-lil Jcur-kur-ra ga-sd-an nu-um-ti nin-zu ga- 
sd-an ab-da(-me-en) 

Bel of the lands, lord of life, lord of wisdom, lord in- 
deed thou art! 

dimmer Mu-ul-lil (see line 2 for note). 
kur-kur-ra (see line 3 for note). 

ga-sd-an, like h-mu-un (line 1), equals belu, "lord", and is a 
phonetic form of gasan which is usually represented by GE&PU- 
GUNtf (Br. 6989 and MSL. p. 129). ga is only a syllable here 
(see lines 4 and 12 for further comment). &A is an old sign; here 
it is old Babylonian and represents closely the linear form. The 
sign is much used in Assyrian with the syllabic value sd, especially 
in the place of N!T&(fta) which is often a relative pronoun. 
nu-um-ti (see on line 16). 


nin-zu means "lord of wisdom", nin equals b&lu (Br. 10985; 
see line 10). On zu (see line 1). 

ab-da should evidently be ab-da-me-en (see line 16). 

18. e-lum nl an-na a-kad za-da 3d mu-e-da-mal 

mighty one, dread of heaven, royal one indeed thou art! 

e-lum equals kabtu (Br. 5888), and appears to stand for elim 
which also equals kabtu (Br. 8885). lum is clearly syllabic here, 
but the sign, old Babylonian here, is indicative of plant-growth, 
consisting of waving lines. 

nl equals puluhtu, "fear", here (see on line 1). 

an-na: an equaling am, "heavens", is a value of ANU at- 
tested by the phonetic complement na. The sign ANU in our 
text is old Babylonian and is the same as the original ideogram 
of the star, except that wedges have taken the place of straight 
lines. In our Hymn to Adad (CT. XV, Tablet 29631) the transition 
from the Babylonian to the Assyrian ANU may be clearly seen 
all on one page, wedges however are used, not straight lines. 
There is the original form, there is the Assyrian form, and there 
are intermediate forms enough to show how the Babylonian star 
passes into the Assyrian ANU. The NANU of our text may be 
found exactly in the Brick of Ur-Gur (CT. XXI, Tablet 90000, 
plate 8). In Nebuchadrezzar I. (CT. IX, Tablet 92987), the internal 
horizontals have disappeared, but the sign has not fully reached 
the Assyrian NANU. 

a-kad: perhaps this word a-kad is a loan-word from the 
Assyrian ekdu. It is better to take a as a vocalic abstract prefix 
and to consider kad as the root. There are three signs that give 
this value kad (Br. 1364, 1365 and 2700). The sign GADU means 
kM, "clothing material" (Br. 2704 and WH. 361; see also MSL. 
p. 114). The context alone suggests here that some idea of power 
may be expected in the word a-kad. Perhaps royal power is 
meant, which could be symbolically represented by a garment, 
especially a royal robe. 

za-da no doubt stands for za-e-da and would be equal to 
"thou thyself", "thou indeed" (see line 16). 

d in Sumerian may represent the Assyrian lu, "verily", (Br. 7047). 
6-rf, simply as a syllable, occurs above (see line 17). 

mu-e-da-mal is a verb, mu is an indeterminate verbal prefix. 
Whether it is first, second or third person may be determined by 
the context. Here, however, the za-da of the context shows mu 
to be second person (see on line 1). e here is a verbal infix, 
corroborative in character (see MSL. p. XXIV, also lines 3 and 14). 
da is also a verbal infix (see line 16). mal equals basu, "to be", 
(Br. 2238). 


19. dimmer Mu-ul-lil u en(?) dimmer-ri-ne za-da sd mu-e-da-mal 
Bel, very lord of gods thou indeed art! 

u equals b&lu , "lord", and is a very common ideogram for 
"lord" (see u-mu-un, line 1). en also equals bdlu, "lord", but 
evidently the text is imperfect at this point (see line 16, on en). 

dimmer -ri-ne means "gods", ri is a phonetic complement; ne 
is a purely phonetic plural ending used both for nouns and verbs 
(see SVA. p. 69). 

za-da d mu-e-da-mal (see line 18). 

20. a-a Dimmer Mu-ul-lil mu-lu gu md-md-me-en mu-lu se md- 


father Bel, who causest vegetation to sprout, who causest 
grain to grow! 

a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil (see on lines 2 and 3). 

mu-lu is a phonetic representation of mulu (Br. 6398). mulu 
is ES; EK would be gulu (Br. 6395). mu-lu frequently means the 
Assyrian relative pronoun Sa (Br. 6406). 

gu: GU is a composite sign whose original parts are NI and 
BE and which means "full of death". According to the derivation, 
Gft then may be read as "destruction" (MSL. p. 156). Gft has also 
an Assyrian equivalent gu meaning "plant", "vegetation" (Br. 11138 
and HW. p. 582). The consideration of GU as meaning "vegetation" 
looks only on the perishable side of the object. The sign has few 
values. Here, it is clearly old Babylonian resembling the linear form. 

md-md-me-en here equals asu, "go out", used of plants and 
trees Br. 4303). The more generally used word for asu is 1 (UD.DU) 
(see on line 15). 

md: the name of the sign is NISIGft (see note on se-zr, line 1). 
The sign is old Babylonian here, me-en (see on line 16). 

Se: the sign is old Babylonian here. Its most common Assyrian 
equivalent is &J'M, "grain" (see line 1). If we gave U-UM the 
broader meaning of "production", at the same time reading GU as 
"destruction", we would have the fine antithetical parallelism: "0 
father Bel, who bringest forth desti-uction and who bringest forth 
production." Such a reading would give quite correctly the course 
of thought, for Bel is god of the atmosphere, lord of the clouds, 
and commander of the rain-storms which are either sources of 
growth on earth or of ruin. On the other hand, the translation 
which I have adopted seems perhaps preferable. 

21. dimmer Mu-ul-lil me-lam-zu gur-ra ka-mu-ni-ib-( }-ne-ne 
Bel, before the great glory may they be (in fear?)! 

me-lam-zu: from the combination of ME and LAM we get 
the Assyrian melammu, "glory", me: MIMU with the value isib 


means ellu, "bright" (see line 16 for further comment), lam: one 
of the values of IZft, seems to equal idtu, "flame", but the usual 
value of IZtr for iSdtu is bil (see line 6, de), me-lam literally 
means "bright flame", zu, besides being an ideogram for idu, 
"know", is the usual pronominal suffix of the second person singular 
(see on zu, line 1), as in this passage. 

gur-ra gives a good sense, though the signs resemble KU 
and RA giving u-ra, a double postposition. The text however is 
defective, gur-ra equals kabtu (Br. 10183), making the phrase 
read "before thy great glory", gur: KIL also has the value gurun 
equal to ebnu, "fruit" (Br. 10179). ra (see on line 3). 

fya: KtlA is the usual Sumerian sign used with a verb, to 
give a precative sense as here. The sign here is old Babylonian 
and resembles the pictorial form which is clearly that of "a fish" 
(see on line 22). The original pictorial figure is one of the few 
to be found in which curved lines predominate. 

mu-m-ib-()-ne-ne: strangely enough the verb seems to be 
omitted in the sentence of this line. Perhaps the omission is due 
to scribal error, mu is a verbal prefix of the third person here 
(see on line 18). ni-ib is a verbal infix (see MSL. p. XXXIII). 
The infixes are generally personally indeterminate. They incorporate, 
between the verbal prefixes that represent the subject and the 
verb, the object in pronominal form, whether it be direct or in- 
direct, ni-ib really equals "before it". The translation disregards 
ni-ib for the sake of smoothness, ni (see on line 13). ib stands 
to ni as postposition to pronoun. The sign for ib is old Babylonian ; 
it is really composite and signifies "side", ne-ne is a personal 
pronoun of the third person (see ASK. p. 139). ne is syllabic here 
(see de, line 6, about its ideographic value; also lam, line 21). 

22. hu-e an-na ha-e tu-ra a-n\ ma-ni-ib-si 

The birds of the heavens and the fish of the sea are filled 
with fear of thee! 

hu-e equals issuru, "bird", hu: simple hu is used elsewhere 
for issuru. The sign MUSlSlNNU here is o'ld Babylonian. The 
archaic form is supposed to be the picture of a bird in flight. 
mus&n, another value of MUSENNU, also means "bird", e is not 
a necessary part of the word, being here only a vowel of prolongation 
probably indicating the definite article (see lines 3 and 14). 

an-na (see on line 18). 

ha-e equals nunu, "fish", ha alone equals nunu (see on line 21). 
e serves the same purpose as in hu-e. 

tu-ra equals apsu, "sea", tu alone equals apsu (Br. 10217). 
ra may be taken as a sign of the genitive (see on-line 3). 

Sa-nl equals "in the midst of fear", sh: AGU, with the 


value sa, equal to libbu or kirbu, is one of the few Sumerian 
prepositions. It precedes its object as a noun in the construct 
state, nl (see on line 18). 

ma-ni-ib-si consists of prefix, infix and verb, ma is not a 
very common verbal prefix. It is indeterminate, but the sense 
requires the third person (see MSL. p. XXIV). m-ib is second 
person here (see on line 21). si: the most common meaning of 
si is malu, 'fill". The sign is Babylonian and can be found either 
in the Code of Hammurabi or the Cyrus Cylinder. 

23. a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil-li da-da mah mu-e-gin sag-e-zi &i- 

ba-e e-nab 

father Bel, in great strength thou goest, the head of 
life, the shepherd of the stars! 

a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil-li (see on line 2). li is merely phonetic 
complement. We might give it an ideographic value and connect 
it with da-da and render "abundant in strength". The common 
meaning of LILU is rau, "abound". With the value gub, how- 
ever, it means ellu, "bright". The sign is old Babylonian, yet quite 
different from the archaic linear form. 

da-da means "strength" (see on line 16). 

mah has three common Assyrian equivalents, ma'adu, "many", 
rabti, "great" and siru, "high", mah here equals rabu. There is 
still another Assyrian equivalent, mahhu which must be a loan- 
word in Semitic. 

mu-e-gin as prefix, infix and verb means "he indeed goes". 
mu-e (see on line 18). gin is a value of the sign ARAGUBBU 
(see Z, line 15). 

sag-e-zi equals "head" (line 5) plus vowel of prolongation 
(line 3) and "of life" (line 4). ZiTU equals napistu as well as 
imnu and kinu. 

si-ba-e divides into siba and e. si-ba is the same as siba 
(line 5), only here the word is given syllabically rather than ideo- 
graphically. e is a vowel prolongation (as in line 3). 

e-nab is naturally treated as though e were a vocalic prefix 
and nab the root, e as an abstract prefix, no doubt, is possible 
(MSL. p. XVII). nab: instead of NABBU, perhaps the sign is ANA- 
MjSfiKU with the last component omitted; then the value should 
be mul, equal to kakkabdni, "stars", and the clause reads: "shepherd 
of the stars", e may equal mu "water" (see line 14), and nab may 
equal samu, "heaven" ; then we have the reading : "shepherd of the 
water of heaven". 

24. u-mu-un ka na-hm-gd iz-ba eriga mu-e-gin gin si-tisu-me-a 
lord, the mouth of production thou openest, as a prolific 

city thou goest, the reed of the fulness of life thou art ! 


it-mu-un (line 1). 

ka: KAGU here is a noun with the value Tea equal to pu, 
mouth", (Br. 538). The sign originally represented the head, and 
its first meaning was gu equal to kibu. The sign is old Babylonian 
(see on lines 1 and 4). 

na-am-gd is a noun, na-hm is an abstract prefix (line 1). 
gd equals sakdnu, "cause to be", (Br. 5421). The sign is PISANNU. 
We have had the sign phonetically represented by ma-al (line 11) 
used as a suffix. Here gd is not a suffix, but the root. 

iz-ba is a verb, iz is an indeterminate prefix, shown by the 
context to be of the second person, ba equals pitu, "open". The 
sign is old Babylonian. The archaic form of the sign signified "divide". 

eri (see on line 13). 

ga (see line 12). ga can be used as an adjective meaning 
"prolific", one of the derived ideas of ga as "milk". 

mu-e-gin (see line 23). 

gin equals kanu, "reed". The sign is sometimes followed by 
the phonetic complement na. The sign is old Babylonian. 

si equals "fulness" (see on line 22). 

ti-su means "unto life", ti (see line 16); the sign here, how- 
ever, really resembles BALA which primarily means "breaking into". 
Then we have the derived meaning palu, "weapon", then "insignia 
of royal authority", and consequently "rule", "government". If we 
read bal instead of tf, then Bel is "a full reed unto royalty", which 
makes little sense, su (see line 15). 

me-a is the same as me-en (see on line 16). a is phonetic (see 
on line 9). 

25. a-a dimm ^ Mu-ul-lil sag zi sag n-la su ti ba-ni-ib-ag 

father Bel, the head of life, the head of strength, the 
power of life thou makest thyself! 

a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil (see lines 2 and 3). sag (see line 5). 

zi equals napistu like ti (see line 16, also 23). n$-la (see 
on line 8). 

su equals kdtu, "hand". The sign also has a value kdd which 
is evidently derived from the Semitic kdtu. 

ti (see on line 24). If we read the sign as TIL, then Bel is 
"the power of life". If we read BALA, then Bel is "the power 
of royalty", signifying perhaps that royal authority is vested in Bel. 

ba-ni-ib-ag is a verb, ba is an indeterminate verbal prefix, 
but is much used for the second person (MSL. p. XXVI). ni-ib 
(see on line 21). ag equals epsu, "make". The sign is old Babylonian. 

26. su-gil nis-la mu-bi im 

Altogether there are twenty -five lines in the tablet. 


sti-gil equals napharu, 'what is collected", "totality", entirety". 
su is a prefix to the causative stem (see on line 25). gil equals 
pahdru, "collect". 

niS-ta: the signs for the numerals twenty and five are the 
same as in Assyrian, nis is the Sumerian numeral for "twenty". 
la is the Sumerian numeral for "five". 

mu-bi im\ mu-bi equals "his name", each line of the Hymn 
being considered a name of Bsl. In our translation we may read 
"its lines", im, the same sign as n\ (line 1). im is sometimes 
equal to ttfu, "clay", or duppu, "tablet". 

27. gr(A.8l) tim(b)-ma 
Hymn of praise. 

&r is a value derived from two signs, A and 1, taken together. 
The most common meaning of the value is bikitu, "lamentation", 
or "song" (see i-de, line 6). 

Urn-ma: the phonetic complement ma indicates that the pre- 
ceding value should end with m. Dr. Lau regards this as the 
sign lib(m) = kuru "woe", (Br. 7271); hence er-lim-ma would mean 
a penitential psalm. 

Chapter II 

Tablet 13930, Plates 16 and 17, Hymn to Sin 


1. ma-gur(KA.U) azag an-na Se-ir-ma-al ni(IM)-fe-wa 
shining ship of the heavens, majestic alone! 

2. a-a Dimmer fefoM h-mu-un-e Sis-unu- ki -ma 
father Nannar, lord of Ur! 

3. a . a dimmer St's- ki u-mu-un-e E(BIT)-wer-WM-^/(IG) 
father Nannar, lord of E-gisirgal! 

4. a-a dimmffr Sis-tob-mu-un dimmer AS-suh-ud 
father Nannar, lord of Namrasit! 

5. u-mu-un Dimmer Sis- ki tu-mu sag din f> ir En-M-ld 
lord Nannar, chief son of Bel! 

6. sg(VIRIG)-ga-zu-ne sfg(VlRlG)-ga-zu-ne 
When thou art full, when thou art full, 

7. z'-de(NE) a-a-zu i-de(N'E) dimmer Mu-ul-lil-ra se-ir-ma-al-la-zu-ne 
When before thy father, before Bel thou art sovereign, 


8. a-a dimmer Sis-** se-tr-ma-al-la-zu-ne gaba zi(g)-ga-zu-ne 

father Nannar, when thou art sovereign, when thou liftest 
up the breast, 

9. 7&-<7Mr(HAR) an-ag(LYB)-ga *^(DIRIG)-^a se-ir-ma-al-la-zu-ne 
ship in the midst of the heavens, when thou art full and 


10. a-a dimmer Sis- ki za-e <s(AB) azag-Su(KV) pa(d)-a-zu-ne 

father Nannar, thou, when thou speakest to the shining house, 

11. a-a dimmer tiis- M ma-dim %a(A.MI.A) stg(DIRIG)-ga-zu-ne 

father Nannar, when like a ship on the tide thou art full, 

12. {ftg(T>imG)-ga-zu-ne stg(THRIG)-ga-zu-ne za-e sfg(DlElG)-ga- 

When thou art full, when thou art full, thou, when thou art full, 

13. sfg(DIRIG)-ga-zu-ne bi-sag-a-zu-ne za-e sg(DIRIG)-ga-zu-ne 
When thou art full, when thou speakest favorably, thou when 

thou art full, 

14. bi-sag-a ru(Uli)-ti-a-zu-ne za-e sfg(DlRlG)-ga-zu-ne 

When thou speakest graciously and engenderest life, thou, when 
thou art full! 

15. a-a dimmer jts- ki lid damal hd-ne-ra sal-dug(KA.)-ga-zu-ne 

father Nannar of extensive progeny, when thou speakest to 
that progeny, 

16. a-a-zu ide(&l) hul-la mu-e-i-m-ma sal-zi ma-ra ni-in-gti(KA.) 
Thy father discerns the joyful face and speaks life to the land. 

17. e i-i lugal-ra u(d) (UD)-de(NE)-e e ?ww-Mn-g(UD.DU) 

As an exalted royal command, daily he causes the word to go forth! 

18. dimmer Mu-ul-lil-li mu-du-ru u-sud-du su-za ma-ra ni-in-ru(UL) 
Bel with the sceptre of distant days exalts thy hand over the land. 

19. Sis-unu- ki -ma ma-gur(H.AR) azag-ga pa(d)-a-zu-ne 
When in Ur, shining ship, thou speakest, 

20. . . <""" Nu-dim-mud-e sal-dug(KA)-ga-zu-ne 
When to . . Ea thou speakest, 

21 ............. [pa(d)]-a-zu[-ne] 

When ..... thou speakest, 

22. . 

23 led a tm[-st] 

. . with water is filled. 


24 ............. gi a im-si 

............ with water is filled. 

25. $d(A.TU) ....... e a im-si dimmer [Sis- 

The river ...... is filled with water by Nannar. 

26. azag-gi kZ(A.TU) ud-ktb-nun-na-ge(KlT) aim-si\ dimmer 8is- ki -Tcam\ 
The bright Euphrates is filled with water by Nannar. 

27. kZ(A.TU) nu e-bi ldk-e a im-si dimmer Sis- ki -kam 
The empty river is filled with water by Nannar. 

28. sug mah sug ban(T\JR)-da a im-si dimmer Sis- ki -kam 

The large marsh, the little marsh is filled with water by 

29. &-(A.SI) Zzm(LIB)-7na dimmer En. zu 
Penitential Psalm to En-zu. 

This beautiful and interesting hymn begins with a picturesque 
and lordly epithet of the god whose full face so often shone upon 
the worshipper night by night. His fatherly nature and his full- 
orbed glory are dwelt upon in adoring and glowing terms. The 
name of his city and temple are mentioned. His power to lighten 
the world is acknowledged. His peculiar relation of "son to Bel" 
is announced. The phenomenon of his appearance in the heavens 
as the full moon is described to us from several points of view. 
This is the famous Nannar, dwelling in the temple of E-gisirgal 
at the ancient city of Ur. The sacred ship, becoming a peculiar 
emblem in Babylonian worship, symbolized several important ideas 
connected with Nannar's transit through the heavens by night or 
during the month. Perhaps Nannar was in the beginning a water- 
god. His power over the waters is graphically described. 


1. mh-gur azag an-na se-ir-ma-cd nl-te-na 

shining ship of the heavens, majestic by thyself! 

mh-gur is a boat of crescent form. Sin is a man sitting in 
the half circle of the moon and sailing across the firmament of 
the heavens as in a majestic ship, mh: the sign MU was originally 
pictorial and represented the rudder of the ship. The sign of our 
tablet is New-Babylonian and can be found in the inscriptions of 
Nebuchadrezzar II. It is half way between the old pictorial and 
the usual Assyrian MU. gur: the sign HAR probably refers to 
the body of the ship as "an enclosure", or more particularly to "the 
crescent form" of the ship, since HAR means "circular enclosure". 
The HAR of our text is much like the linear form found in the 
Stile des Vautours. 


azag equals ellu, "shining", (Br. 9890). The sign also has the 
value ku with the meaning ellu. azag, "shining", refers to the 
moon and the moon looks like a ship. 

an-na (see Hymn to Bel, line 18). 

se-ir-ma-al nl-te-na (see Hymn to Bel, line 1) The ideas of 
these two words find their way into the first line of the Asur- 
banipal Hymn to Sin, K. 2861, (IV R. 9). se-ir-ma-al appears 
especially as ner-gal (s-n and m-g) and nl-te-na as as-ni mah-am ; 
e-dis-si-u si-i-ru. 

2. a-a d immer Sis- hi u-mu-un-e Sts-unu- ki -ma 
father Nannar, lord of Ur! 

a-a (see v Hymn to Bel, line 3). 

dimmer &.fci j s the most common Sumerian name of the god 
Sin, and means "brother of the land". Sin was probably looked 
upon as "the helper of earth". dimmer^ Hymn to Bel, line 2). 
Sis equals ahu, "brother", (Br. 6437). JIS sometimes has v the value 
uru, especially when it means nasdru, "keep". The SI& of our 
hymn is New-Babylonian, but is not essentially different from the 
SIS of Gudea. ki (see Hymn to Bel, line 9). 

u-mu-un-e (see Hymn to Bel, line 3). 

sis-unu-M-ma means "of the brother's dwelling place". Sis 
means "brother", unu equals subtu , "dwelling", (Br. 4792). ma, 
perhaps, can be taken as a sign of the genitive, being dialectic for 
ga, which is for ge, one of the values of KIT (see MSL. pp. XI and 
XVI). Perhaps we ought to read this word Uru-um- ki -ma, taking 
the other value of SIS and also reading um instead of unu. In 
texts of OBI. it would appear that UNU is closely related to UM 
as well as to AB. 

3. a-a Dimmer $&.w u-mu-un-e 

father Nannar, lord of E-gisirgal! 

fa dimmer Sis- ki u-mu-un-e (see line 2). 
ner-nu-gdl is not the usual spelling. The more common 
form is JZ-gts-Sir-gal. Our J(BIT)-er(NER)-nM(NU)-#a'Z(lG) which 
also occurs in Hammurabi (for example, in CH. Col. II, line 21, 
Plate II) is dialectic for JZ(BlT)-gti(lZ)-str(Sin)-gal(GAL). J(BIT)- 
gis(lZ)-sir(^[n)-gal(GA.L) is the spelling found in the Asurbanipal 
Hymn. In the inscription of the Clay Cylinder of Nabonidus found 
at Ur (Col. I, line 30) , the spelling is J?(BIT)-#w'(IZ)-&r(SIR)-#a- 
(GAL), but the margin has the spelling ^(BIT)-<7iS(IZ)-mt(NU)- 
gdl(lG). JZ equals bitu, "house", (Br. 6238). ner evidently stands 
for kis. These two values, ner and ki$, were represented by the 
same sign in old Babylonian; namely, P1RIKKU. Prom the sign 
PIRIKKU, there developed in Assyrian another sign, whose chief 


value is ki with the meaning Idssatu. The sign here then should 
have the value 7m, or in old Babylonian gis, which is also one 
of the values of GISSU, a determinative before the name of a light. 
nu is for Sir which equals nwrw, "light". IS.SIR is a common 
ideogram for "light". The interchange of NU and SIRU is not so 
easy to explain. The fact that NU instead of SIRU occurs in the 
name of the temple in the time of Hammurabi would go to show 
that the spelling of the word with NU is more primitive than the 
spelling with SIRU. Perhaps NU has a value sir. Briinnow re- 
cognizes the fact that NU in the name of the temple sometimes 
takes the place of SIRU (see Br. 2005 and 1657). There is a 
difference between IKU and GALLU. IKU equals ba&u, while 
GALLU equals rabu. The gal (ES mal) of IKU must be different 
from the gal of GALLU. 

4. a-a d * mmer Sis- ki u-mu-un dimmer A$-suh-ud 
father Nannar, lord of Namrasit! 

a-a dimmer & s _ki u . mu . un ( see line 2). 

dimmer As-suh-ud: one of the citations Briinnow gives, in which 
the name of this god occurs, is in Incantation K. 3255 (IV R. 2 2, 21), 
where, in the Sumerian as well as in the marginal reading of the 
Assyrian, Sin is said ,to be the lord of the god Namrasit. ^ wimer 
En-zu-na en dimmer As-suh-ud ra-ge = * lu Sin de-el ,Nam-ra-si-it. 
As-suh-ud means "the only foundation of light". AS has a very 
common Assyrian equivalent edu, "one". suh equals i$du, "foundation", 
(Br. 4811). ud equals urru, "light", (see Br. 7798). 

5. u-mu-un dimmer ^i s M tu-mu sag d gir En-lil-ld 
lord Nannar, chief son of Bel! 

dimmer g^.ki ( see ] me 2). 

tu-mu: TU.MU is a syllabic and dialectic form of DUMU 
(Br. 4069 and 11917). When DUMU stands for mdru, "son", it 
is supposed to have the value du (Br. 4081). tu-mu is no doubt 
for dumu and du is a shortened form of dumu. tu: the sign may 
be recognized as old Babylonian appearing in this form in the Code 
of Hammurabi (see also AL. p. 135, No. 328). 

sag (see Hymn to Bel, line 5). tu-mu sag must be equal 
to some such expression as "first born son", or "only begotten son". 

dinair En-lil-ld: in line 7, we shall have dimmer Mu-ul-lil-ra 
and in line 18, dimmer Mu-ul-lil-li. din e ir may be preferred to dimmer 
because the sign is a determinative to an EK form. En-lil-ld 
consists of the god's name, En-lil (see Mu-ul-lil in Hymn to Bel, 
line 2). 

6. stg-ga-zu-ne sfg-ga-zu-ne 

When thou art full, when thou art full, 


sig-ga-zu-ne is a $a/-clause equal to ma malika, "in thy ful- 
ness", slg: the sign to which this value is attached is composite. 
One element consists of SI whose chief meaning is "fill". The 
other element consists of A which means "water". SLA then 
means "full of water", or "fulness". The sign, called DIRIGU, has 
two values ending with g\ i. e., dirig related to the sign-name and 
stg which is quite certainly equal to malu (Br. 3722). ga is a 
phonetic complement (see Hymn to Bel, line 4). zu is a deter- 
minate suffix of the second person (see Hymn to Bel, line 21). 
ne is a postposition equal to ina (see Br. 4602, also de in Hymn 
to Bel, line 6). 

7. i-de a-a-zu i-de dimmer Mu-ul-lil-ra Se-ir-ma-al-la-zu-ne 
When before thy father, before Bel thou art sovereign, 

i-de (see Hymn to Bel, line 6). i-de is a preposition used 
as a noun in the construct state, having the meaning of makru 
or pdnu and equal to ma makar or ina pdn. 

a-a-zu equals noun a-a, plus suffix zu. a-a (see Hymn to 
Bel, line 3). zu (see line 6). 

dimmer Mu-ul-lil-ra equals god's name dimmer Mu-ul-til, plus 
phonetic complement ra. dimmer Mu-ul-lil (see Hymn to Bel, line 2). 
ra (see Hymn to Bel, line 3). It might be better to regard lil-ra 
as a shortened form of lil-ld-ra. lil is quite apt to take the 
phonetic complement Id, a value of the sign LALLU, while ra is 
naturally a postposition. 

Se-ir-ma-al-la-zu-ne is a kal- clause equal to "in thy sovereignty". 
se-ir-ma-al (see Hymn to Bel, line 1). zu-ne (see line 6). 

8. a-a dimmer &is- ki se-ir-ma-al-la-zu-ne gaba zi-ga-zu-ne 

father Nannar, when thou art sovereign, when thou 
liftest up thy breast, 

a-a dimmer ( see j me 2). 

se-ir-ma-al-la-zu-ne (see line 7). 

gaba equals irtu, "breast", (Br. 4470). We have had gaba 
as an adjective equal to pitu (see Hymn to Bel, line 6). 

zi-ga-zu-ne is a $a/-clause meaning "in thy lifting up", zi equals 
nasu, "lift up", (Br. 2325). We have had zi as equal to kenu, 
"right", and naptstu, "life", (see Hymn to Bel, lines 4 and 25). ga 
is a phonetic complement, zi might be zig (see Br. 2303 and 
Hymn to Bel , line 4). zu-ne (see line 6). In gaba zi-ga-zu-ne, 
perhaps we have the picture of the full moon suddenly rising in 
the night from the horizon. 

9. ma-gur an-shg-ga stg-ga Se-ir-ma-al-la-zu-ne 

ship in the midst of the heavens, when thou art full 
and sovereign, 


mh-gur (see line 1). 

an-shg-ga: SAGU is usually taken as a preposition and stands 
before its object. Here it seems to follow its object, awjsee Hymn 
to Bel, line 18). shg-ga equals LIB plus GA. shg: SAGU, equal 
to libbu, may have either one of three values; viz., sh when not 
followed by a phonetic complement, shg when followed by the 
phonetic complement ga and shb when followed by the phonetic 
complement ba (see Br. 7980 and Hymn to B61, line 22). ga (see 
Hymn to Bel, line 4). 

sig-ga (see line 6). 

se-ir-ma-al-la-zu-ne (see line 7). 

10. a-a dimmer &is- ki za-e 6s azag-sli pa(d)-a-zu-ne 

father Nannar, thou, when thou speakest to the shining 

a-a Mmwr &- w (see line 2). 

za-e (see Hymn to Bel, line 16). 

<$s (see Hymn to Bel, line 16). s is admittedly a Sumerian 
value as is shown by its relation to the sign-name ESU. 6s is 
the fuller form of e(BIT). From s there has arisen a Semitic 
loan-word esu, "house". 

azag-sh means "to the shining", azag (see line 1). su (see 
Hymn to B61, line 15). 

pa(d)-a-zu-ne is a ^aZ-clause composed of a preposition with 
an infinitive that governs a suffix, as ina tamika, "in thy speaking", 
i. e., 'when thou speakest". pad is a verb equal to tamu, "speak". 
pad also equals zakdru, "to name", pa, the shortened form of 
pad, evidently intended here, is sometimes represented by the 
Assyrian nabu. a is the vowel of prolongation indicating the^a, 
rather than the ^od-value. zu-ne (see line 6). 

11. a-a Dimmer gffjit mh-dim gd sfg-ga-zu-ne 

father Nannar, when like a ship on the tide thou art full, 

a-a darner jg^.ki ( see i ine 2 ). 

mh-dim consists of noun mh and postposition dim. ma (see 
on line 1). mh-gur refers to the moon, mh refers to an ordinary 
ship, dim is equal to kima, "like". The sign-name is DIMMU. 
dim is ES. The EK form of the value is gim. 

gd is a contraction of a, ge and a from the signs A, MI and 
A, and means "tide", or "high water", a means "water" and MI 
with the value gd means "black", and the second A is evidently 
phonetic only. gd, therefore, means "black water", such water as 
is seen in a "flood" or "high tide". 

stg-ga-zu-ne (see line 6). 


12. stg-ga-zu-ne stg-ga-zu-ne za-e stg-ga-zu-ne 

When thou art Ml, when thou art Ml, thou, when thou art Ml, 

stg-ga-zu-ne (see line 6). 

za-e (see line 10). It may be noticed that stg-ga-zu-ne occurs 
three times in this line and ten times in the section, lines 6 18. 
This repetition no doubt serves for rhetorical effect, especially in 
oral delivery and, together with the marked uniformity of measure 
in the clauses, characterizes the passage as poetic. 

13. stg-ga-zu-ne bi-sag-a-zu-ne za-e stg-ga-zu-ne 

When thou art full, when thou speakest favorably, thou, 
when thou art full, 

stg-ga-zu-ne (see line 6). 

bi-ag-a-zu-ne is a kal-clanse equal to "in thy speaking graciously". 
bi equals kibu, 'speak", (Br. 5124). Starting with the meaning 
"speak" the sign KASU comes to have a demonstrative force and 
is generally used as a suffix of the third person singular. We 
shall also see that it sometimes equals sikaru "strong drink". 
Sag: the sign giving this value is one not much used. It may 
be identified as GISIMMAR (see AL. p. 130, No. 206, also Br. 7286). 
sag is the chief value, equal to damdku or damku, "gracious". 
a: the value is generally followed by the phonetic complement ga, 
but here it is followed by a (see Hymn to Bel, line 9). zu-ne 
(see line 6). 

14. bi-Sag-a ru-ti-a-zu-ne za-e stg-ga-zu-ne 

When thou speakest graciously and engenderest life, thou, 
when thou art Ml, 

bi-sag-a (see line 13). 

ru-ti-a-zu ne is a ^-clause equal to "in thy engendering life". 
ru: we have had UL already as a composite part of Mu-uUil (see 
Hymn to Bel, line 2). UL here probably with the value ru equals 
kaldlu, "perfect". The sign is intended to be the picture of a 
goring bull; then, as we get away from the primary idea, there 
arise the meanings of "exultation", "perfection", etc. Nannar is 
the perfecter of life", ti (see Hymn to Bel, line 16). a (see 
Hymn to Bel, line 9). zu-ne (see line 6). 

za-e (see line 10). 

stg-ga-zu-ne (see line 6). 

15. a-a M mmer Sis-** lid damal lid-ne-ra sal-dug-ga-zu-ne 

father Nannar of extensive progeny, when thou speakest 

to that progeny, 
a-a dimmer gfoJH ( see on l me 2). 

lid may be of Semitic origin from the Assyrian word littu, 
"progeny". The two horizontal lines in the sign suggest the 



idea of "pairing", from which comes the idea of "progeny" (thus, 
Prince, MSL., p. 223). 

damal (see Hymn to Bel, line 10). 

lid-ne-ra equals "to that progeny", ne equals annu, a demon- 
strative pronoun "this", ne is cognate with de which is also cognate 
with da and la used as postpositions (see de and da in Hymn to 
Bel, lines 6 and 4). ra is a postposition = "unto" (see Hymn to 
Bel, line 3). 

sal-dug -ga-zu-ne is a ^a^-clause: "in thy speaking", sal is a 
prefix of an abstract character. It is equivalent to the Assyrian 
zinntitu, "feminine". It is a counterpart to ku in the expressions 
Erne-sal and Eme-ku, ku being equal to belu, "lord". As a prefix, 
sal generalizes the root-idea of the stem to which it is attached 
and is consequently an abstract prefix (see Br. 10930, 10949 and 
10955). dug-ga (see Hymn to Bel, line 4). zu-ne (see line 6). 

16. a-a-zu ide hill-la mu-e-si-in-mas sal-zi ma-ra ni-in-gu 
Thy father discerns the joyful face and speaks life to 
the land. 

a-a-zu (see on line 7). 

ide equals pdnu, "face", (Br. 9281). The sign IGIT can be 
read either ide, which is ES, or ige, which is EK. 

hul-la equals noun hul, plus phonetic complement la. hul 
equals hadu, "joy" (Br. 10884). The sign giving this value is not 
to be confounded with another sign which also has the value hul 
meaning "evil", expressed by limuttu (Br. 9503). 

mu-e-si-in-mas is a verb consisting of verbal prefix mu, verbal 
infixes e and Si-in and root mas. mu (see Hymn to Bel, lines 1 
and 18). e (see Hymn to Bel, line 18). si-in: an objective verbal 
infix naturally has its person determined by the object to which 
it refers. That object in this case seems to be ide hul-la, A "the 
joyful face" of the moon, mas: the sign has two names, BAKU 
and MASU, and two chief values related to these names, bar and 
mas. bar and mas are cognate forms, b changes to m (MSL. 
p. X); r changes to s (MSL. p. XII). The sign has two chief 
meanings, "side" and "cut". The meaning of "side" is represented 
by bar (see MSL. p. 234), while the meaning of "cut", from which 
we get the idea of "distinguish" is generally represented by the 
value mas (Br. 1735). 

sal-zi consists of abstract prefix sal and noun zi. sal (see 
on line 15). zi (see on line 8). 

ma-ra equals "unto the land", ma (see Hymn to Bel, line 8). 
ra (see line 15). 

ni-in-gu: m can be a verbal prefix and in a verbal infix, or 
ni-in can be a verbal infix with the verbal prefix omitted, gu 


being the verbal root, ra* if taken as a prefix, naturally refers to 
a-a-zu. ni may have a demonstrative force, equal to Suatu, like 
ne. in as an infix refers to ma-ra. gu, a shortened form of gug, 
equal either kibti, "speak", or apdlu, "answer", gu and gug have 
dialectic forms du and dug, the g changing to d which ES prefers. 
The sign is apparently a modification of the sign SANGU (see AL. 
p. 121, No. 14, and p. 124, No. 87). The primary meaning was 
"opening" and the leading value is ka equal to^pu, "mouth". The 
values ka and gu come from the sign-name KAGU (see Hymn to 
Bel, lines 1 and 4). With the value I the sig means "word". 

17. e i-i lugal-ra u-de-e$ e mu-un-& 

As an exalted royal command, daily he causes the word 
to go forth! 

e (see Hymn to Bel, line 14). 

**: * is the chief value of GITTU. The sign with its five 
parallel lines or wedges representing the five fingers of the hand 
is a symbol of power. From the idea of "power", we get that of 
"exaltation" (see Hymn to Bel, line 6). 

lugal-ra consists of stem lugal and postposition ra. lugal: 
the sign is composite, the elements being GAL and LU which 
mean "great" and "man", lugal equals Sarru (Br. 4266). We 
shall have the element LU with the ES value mulu. ra (see Hymn 
to Bel, lines 3 and 8). We might expect la here. 

u-de-eS consists of root u, phonetic complement de and ad- 
verbial ending es. u equals umu, "day", (Br. 7797), and is a 
shortened form of ud. de is phonetic here. The more usual 
phonetic complement of ud is da (see Br. 7774). es (see Br. 10001). 
es as an adverbial ending is probably derived from the Semitic 
adverbial ending -i$ which is supposed to have grown out of the 
Assyrian suffix of the third person su. Agglutinative languages 
do not often possess special adverbial endings. 

m.u-un-'e consists of verbal prefix mu-un and verbal root e. 
mu-un is phonetic for mun which is simply a nasalized mu (see 
MSL. p. XXVIII, and Hymn to Bel, line 1). On & (see Hymn to 
Bel, line 15). 

18. dimmer Mu-ul-lil-li mu-du-ru u-sud-du u-za ma-ra ni-in-ru 
Bel with the sceptre of distant days exalts thy hand over 

the land. 

dimmer Mu-ul-lil-li (see Hymn to Bel, line 23). 

mu-du-ru: there is a sign MUDKU (Br. 10776) which may be 

related to PA. We may infer a relation between MUDEU and 

PA, because the two signs have a common value sig. We know 

also that MUDU.RU sometimes stands for PA (Br. 1275). Now 


52 - 

if MU.DU.RU can stand for PA it must have some meaning in 
common with PA. The most usual meaning of PA is kattu, 
'sceptre", which gives good sense here, mu (see Hymn to Bel, 
line 1). du (see Hymn to Bel, line 15). 

u-sud-du consists of noun w, adjective sud, and phonetic com- 
plement du. u (see line 17). sud equals rtiku, "distant" (Br. 7603). 
du (see gin, line 23), phonetic complement here. 

su-za equals noun u and suffix za. su (see Hymn to Bel, 
line 25). za is a suffix of the second person singular masculine 
(Br. 11722). We have had za-e as being equal to "thou" (Hymn 
to B61, line 16). zu we have found to be the more usual suffix 
of the second person (see on line 6). za is dialectic for zu. 

ma-ra (see on line 16). 

ni-in-ru consists of prefix ni, infix in and verbal root ru. ni-in 
(see on line 16). rii (see on line 14). 

19. Sis-unu- hi -ma ma-gur azag-ga pa(d)-a-zu-ne 
When in Ur, shining ship, thou speakest, 

Sis-unu- ki -ma (see on line 2). 
ma-gur (see on line 1). 

azag-ga equals adjective azag, plus phonetic complement ga. 
azag (see on line 1). ga (see Hymn to Bel, line 4). 
pa(d)-a-zu-ne (see on line 10). 

20. . . aimmer Nu-dim-mud-e sal-dug-ga-zu-ne 
When to . . Ea thou speakest, 

dimmer ^u-dim-mud-e: we have here a compound ideogram 
as a name of the god Ea. d i mmer is the determinative before the 
name of a god (see Hymn to B61, line 2). Nu-dim-mud equals 
the Assyrian E-a (Br. 2016). The usual Sumerian ideogram is 
EN.KI. e in Nu-dim-mud-e a vowel of prolongation (see Hymn 
to Bel, line 3). 

sal-dug-ga-zu-ne (see line 15). 

21 [pa(d)]-a-zu[-ne] 

When thou speakest, 

pa(d)-a-zu-ne (see line 10). 


23 la a im[-si] 

with water is filled 


a equals mu, "water" (Br. 11347). "Water" is a primary 
meaning of the sign AU, which at first consisted of two short 
perpendicular lines representing "falling water" (see Hymn to Bel, 
line 3). 

im-si consists of indeterminate verbal prefix im and verbal 
root si. im (Br. p. 545). si (Hymn to Bel, line 22). 

24 gi a im-si 

with water is filled. 

a im-si (see line 23). 

25. Id e a im-si dr [Sis- ki -kam\ 

The river .... is filled with water by Nannar. 

Id equals ndru, "river". Sometimes Id is shortened to i 
(Br. 11647). The value Id comes from the union of two signs A 
,water" and TU (Br. 10217). Moreover, TtJ with the value tti 
equals apsu, "sea". The TtJ sign, explained more minutely, consists 
of HAL "run" inside of KIL "enclosure". So HAL + KIL = "run- 
ning, flowing within an enclosure", hence = "sea". While Id means 
primarily "water of the sea", it is much used also as a determinative 
before names of rivers. We have the name of the Euphrates in 
the next line. Perhaps the name of the Tigris was given in some 
one of the lines. The common Sumerian ideogram for the name 
of the Tigris is hal-hal, an intensified form of hal, which means 
"running" or "rushing". The Tigris is thus very appropriately called 
"the rushing river". The Babylonian Diglat in the hands of the 
Persians took the form Tigra. 

26. azag-gi Id ud-kib-nun-na-ge a im-si [ dimmer Sis- ki -kam\ 
The bright Euphrates is filled with water by Nannar. 

azag-gi equals ellu, "shining" (Br. 9901). azag (see line 19). 
gi is a phonetic complement, chosen no doubt with a view to 
vowel harmony as regards the following Id (?). GI as an ideogram 
means "reed" (see Hymn to Bel, line 24, gtri). 

"* ud-kib-nun-na-ge means the river of Sippar. For Id, see 
on line 25. ud-kib-nun consists of ud "sun" -f- kib "flourish, 
generate", and nun "great". The sign KIB suggests the idea 
"double" and hence, of course, "generate, beget" (MSL. p. 203). 
Nun, of course, = rabu "great" (Br. 2628), while na must be the 
phonetic complement and ge the nota genitivi as used in the next 
Hymn. The torm ud-kib-nun then seems to mean "the great (nun) 
generative force (kib) of the sun" (ud); a name applied to Sippar 
had been from time immemorial the seat of the worship of the 
sun-god Samas (KBA., pp. 69, 117). Id-ud-kib-nun-na-ge then 
simply means "the river (Id) of (ge) Sippar", viz., the Euphrates, 


which was usually termed in Sumerian Bura-nunu "the great stream 

a im-si (see on line 23). 

27. Id nu e-bi ldh-e a im-si ^immtr 

The empty river is filled with water by Nannar. 

Id (see on line 25). 

nu, regular Sumerian negative abverb, equal to the Assyrian la. 

e-bi equals noun e and suffix bi. e equals mu, "water" (Br. 5844). 
We have also had e equal to kabu, "speech" (Hymn to Bel, line 14). 
bi is a suffix of the third person singualar (see Br. 5135). fo'gets 
its demonstrative nature from the conception "speak" which seems 
to be the primary one in the old Babylonian linear hieroglyph. 

Idk-e consists of root Idh and vocalic prolongation e. Idh 
equals misu "wash" (Br. 6167). It is used of washing the hands 
and feet. It gets the idea "wash" from the idea "servant" who 
does the washing, but it may have meant "servant" before it meant 
"wash". It often has the phonetic complement ha or hi. Literally 
the clause read : "the river whose water washes not". 

a im-si (see on line 23). 

dimmer Sis-^-Jcam equals god-name dimmer &is- ki plus Team = 
KAMMU without doubt (see CT. XV, Colophon of Tablet 29623, 
plate 12). kam is a well recognized determinative used after ordinal 
numerals. It no doubt occupies this position as a genitive particle, 
but, as a genitive sign, it may be used after words other than 
numerals; and, in fact, is so used in Gudea. It is evidently a 
lengthened form of the postposition ka; being ka plus am (see 
SVA. p. 60). 

28. sug mah sug ban-da a im-si dimmer Sis- ki -kam 

The great marsh, the little marsh is filled with water by 

The sign looks like MA but perhaps the copyist made a mistake. 

mah (see Hymn to Bel, line 23). 

sug equals susu, "marsh". The sign is the enclosure-sign KIL 
with the "water" sign AU within the "enclosure" sign. 

ban-da: the signs are DUMU and DADDU. DUMU has several 
values, the chief of whieh are dumu, tur and ban. dumu equals 
md-ru, "son". We have met the value dumu or its dialectic equi- 
valent fumu, represented by TU and MU (see on line 5). tur 
equals sihru, "small", and is naturally followed by the phonetic 
complement ra. ban-da also equals sihru "little" (Br. 4133). 

a im-si (see on line 23). 

dimmer Sis- ki -kdm (see line 27). 


29. & Urn-ma dimmer En-zu 
Penitential Psalm to Sin. 

&r-lim-ma (see Hymn to Bel, line 27). 

dimmer En. zu "lord of wisdom" is the other name by which 
Sin is known in Sumerian. We have had one name above; viz., 
dimmer $&.*'. dimmer f/ n . zu j s no doubt in genitive relation to the 
preceding part of the line, although the nota genitivi is lacking. 
In another hymn to Bel (CT. XV, Tablet 29644, plate 12), the 
genitive relation is signified by the postposition Team. The words 
are: &r-lim-ma din ff ir En-lil-ld-kam. 

Chapter III 

Tablet 29631, Plates 15 and 16, Hymn To ADAD 

1. [&w-]2(UD.DU)-a mu-zu an[-zak-ku] 

In the lightning flash thou proclaimest thy name. 

2. Dimmer Mer(IM) bi-mah #ad-g(UD.DU)-a mu-zu an[-zak-ku} 

Adad, in the mighty thunder and the lightning flash thou 

declarest thy name. 
3 [dimmer] MerQM) dumu An-na bi-mah od-g(UD.DU)-a mu-zu 

Adad, son of Anu, in the mighty thunder and the lightning 

flash thou declarest thy name. 

4. u-mu-un nl(IN)-ki-ge(KIT) bi-mah od-2(UD.DU)-a mu-zu an- 


lord, dread of earth, in the mighty thunder and the lightning 
flash thou declarest thy name. 

5 dimmer Mer(lW) u-mu-un #(TUM)-7?zaZ(IG)-fo bi-mah had-2- 

(UD.DU)-a mu-zu an[-zak-ku] 

Adad, lord of great wrath, in the mighty thunder and the 
lightning flash thou declarest thy name. 

6. bar(ma?)-tab-ba u-mu-un dimmer ama-an-ki-ga bi-mah had-d 

(UD.DU)-a [mu-zu an-zak-ku] 

twin, lord, bull-god of heaven and earth, in the mighty 
thunder and the lightning flash thou declarest thy name. 

7. a-a d* mmer Mer(LM.) u-mu-un ud-da bar-ru-a mu-zu an-zak-ku 
father ADAD, lord, when the light is darkened thou declarest 

thy name. 


8. a-a Dimmer Mer(L^i) u(TJD)-gal-la bar-ru-a mu-zu an-zak-ku 

father Adad, when the great day is darkened thou declarest 
thy name. 

9. a-a dimmer Mer(lM.) uku(UG)-gal-la bar-ru-a mu-zu an-zak-ku 
father Adad, when the great king is cut off thou declarest 

thy name. 

10. dimmer Jlfer(IM) uku(UG) An-na bi-mah od-e(UD.DU)-a mu-zu 


Adad, king of Anu, in the mighty thunder and the lightning 
flash thou declarest thy name. 

11. mu-zu kalam((JN)-ma mM-Mn-rw(TJL)-n*(UL)-rM(UL) 
Thy name is mightily magnificent in the earth. 

12. we-&wn(NE)-2M kalam(dS)-ma tug(KU)-gim im-mi-in-dul 
Thy brightness covers the land like a garment. 

13. za had(PA) afca(RAM)-M-$M(KU) kur-gal a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil 

sag im-da-sig(PA)-gi 

The lightning of thy thunder smites the head of the great 
mountain, father Bel. 

14. wr5a(HAR.DU)-2M ftma(DAGAL) gal dimmer Win-til ba-e-di-hu- 

Thy thunder terrifies the great mother Belit. 

15. dingir En-Ul-U dumu-ni dimmer MerQM)-ra a(lD) mu-un-da-an- 

Bel to his son Adad measures out power. 

16. mulu dumu-mu w(UD) um-me-i-si-si w(UD) um-me-Si-ld-ld 
Thou who art my son, the day thou didst lift up the eye, the 

day thou didst look! 

17. dimmer Mer(TM)-ri w(UD) um-me-Si-si-si w(UD) um-me-ti-ld-ld 
Adad, the day thou didst lift tip the eye, the day thou 

didst look! 

18. u(UD) iminna-bi-mes ba-gan-tal(El)-ld u(UD) um-me-si-ld-ld 
During seven days thou didst blow a full blast when thou 

didst look. 

19. tf(UD) fc(KA) di-zu-ka hhr(GUD)-ha-ra ab-ba w(UD) um-me- 


It was the day of the word of the word of thy judgment, 
bull-god of the abyss, the day thou didst look. 

20. nim-gir luh su-h'-su(K.\J) mu-ra-du-ud 

As the lightning, the messenger of terror, thou didst go. 


21. mulu dumu-mu rw(UL) gin(DU)-na-gin(D\J)-na a-ba zi-gi-en 


When thou who art my son goest violently about, who can 
attack like thee! 


22. Mbala hul gtg a-a muk-zu-su(KU) a-ba za-e-gim fe-^ra(BA) 
The troublesome evil hostile land, father, which is against 

thee; who like thee can attack! 

23. wa(DAK) imi twr-tur-e sH-um-me-ti a-ba za-e-gim te-ga(BA.) 
The little stone of the storm do thou take ! Who can attack 

like thee! 

24. wa(DAK) gal-gal-e su-um-me-fi a-ba za-e-gim te-ga(BA.) 
The large stone do thou take! Who can attack like thee! 

25. na'(DAK) tur-tur-zu wa(DAK) gal-gaLzu muh-ba M-me-a?n(A.AN) 
Thy little stone, thy large stone, on it (the land) it lieth! 

26. ki-bala-a zi-da-zu u-mu-e-gul da iwr(BU) su u-mu-e-se 

The hostile land thy right hand destroys. It gives powerful 
bodily destruction (?) 

27. dimmer Mer(lW)-ri dug(KA.)-dug(KA.)-ga a-a muh-na-su(KU) geS 

(IZ)-m' ba-Si-m-ag 

Adad, when he speaks (to one), father, on him he imposes 
his government. 

28. a-a dimmer Jfer(IM) e(BIT)-ta g(UD.DU)-a-m t2(UD) l(KA) di 


Father Adad, when he comes out of the house, he fixes the 
day of judgment. 

29. e(BIT)-ta en-ta g(UD.DU)-a-m w&it(UG) ban(T\JR)-da na-nam 
When he comes out of the house or out of the city, he fixes 

the great day, 

30. ert'-ta an-na-ta gar(>$A.)-ra-ni w(DD) l(KA.)-har-ra na-nam 
When he establishes himself out of the city out of heaven, he 

fixes the day of curse. 

31. ... 2r(A.I) hm(LTB)-ma *mer MerQM) 
Hymn to Adad. 

This hymn we find to be full of action. The lightning flashes 
in the first line, and we see at least three distinct kinds of storm 
placed on the scene, one succeeding the other. The thunder storm 
first passes over our head. We see the lightning, we hear the 
roar of the thunder, the earth is placed in fear, the day turns 


dark, the top of the mountain is smitten, the very gods themselves 
are terrified. Secondly comes the flood. The storm of the hour 
is lengthened into one of days. It becomes a deluge of judgment 
on the earth. The words say seven days, but in such poetic dis- 
course seven might perhaps simply mean "many". Finally, there 
is a decided change in the scene. The flood has passed away. 
The death-destroying hail-storm falls upon us, not simply the little 
hail-stones, but the great hail-stones. The day, of course, has come. 
But the effects of Adad's power so artistically set forth in 
this hymn are secondary, as placed beside the dignity of the god 
himself. The word of Adad is absolute and all-powerful. He is 
a god of great wrath. He is a real bull-god, of heaven and earth. 
He can put the heavens out of sight He can make day as black 
as the darkest night. He can split the earth with his lightning. 
He can flood the land with water. He can pelt its inhabitants 
with stones. Yet in all this he consults with father Bel. 


1. \had\-t-a. mu-zu an-[zak-ku] 

In the lightning flash thou proclaimest thy name! 

had-2-a is a ^aZ-clause, consisting of noun had, participle e 
and postposition a, and means "in the going out of the sceptre", 
or freely, "in the lightning flash". The apodosis is mu-zu an-zak-ku. 
had (PA) equals hattu, "sceptre" (Br. 5573). The value had may 
be of Semitic origin, but note that its cognate hud is equal to 
namdru, "brightness" (Br. 5582), as is also kun, another value of 
PA "staff"; then PA = "a lighted torch". we have had as equal 
to asu (Hymn to Bel, line 15). 2 is also equal to supu, "flashing" 
(Br. 5638). a equals ina, "in" (Br. 11365). 

mu-zu means "thy name", mu equals sumu, "name" (Br. 1235). 

an-zak-ku is a verb, an is an indeterminate verbal prefix. 
The context shows it to be of the second person (see MSL. p. XXVI). 
zak-ku may mean "utter a decree" (Br. 6519). For example, zak 
equals tamitu, "a decree" (Br. 6493). Perhaps it could as well 
be a verb signifying "to decree", or "to establish", leu also equals 
tamu, "utter" (Br. 10555), but it would be simpler to make ku 
a phonetic complement to zak. It may be that we ought to read 
the clause: "thy name utters the decree". But "thy name" has 
the usual position of the object. It is also rather awkward to 
regard zak as an object placed between the verbal prefix and the verb. 

2. dimm *r Mer bi-mah had-2-a mu-zu an-[zak-ku] 

Adad, in the mighty thunder and the lightning flash thou 
declarest thy name. 


dimmer Jf^ this is the Sumerian name of the storm-god. Mer 
being one of the values of the sign IMMU. The fact that the 
sign in some cases in this hymn (e. g. lines 15 and 17) is 
followed by the phonetic complement ri or ra shows that Mer is 
the value intended for the name of the god. Mer is probably 
from imi changed to immer and then to Mer and hence, like imi, 
means "wind" and "storm". The name Mer offers no suggestion 
as to the origin of the Semitic names Rammdnu and Addu. 

bi-mah equals 'mighty utterance", bi (see Hymn to Sin, 
line 13). 'mah (see Hymn to Bel, line 23). 

had-d-a mu-zu an-zak-ku (see on line 1). 

3 [dimmer] jj/^ aumu An-na bi-mah had--a mu-zu an-za[k-ku] 
Adad, son of Anu, in the mighty thunder and the light- 
ning flash thou declare st thy name. 

dumu (see Hymn to Sin, line 5, tu-mu). 

An-na, ideogram for the god of heaven, plus phonetic com- 
plement. Note that AN for the god Anu does not take the 
determinative god sign. Probably the omission is due to the 
desire to avoid the occurrence of AN twice in succession. It must 
have been after Adad had taken the place of IStar in the second 
triad of gods that Adad was called the son of Anu. The earlier 
arrangement was Anu , Bel , Ea, Sin, Samas and iStar. The later 
order was Anu, Bel and Ea, as rulers of the universe, and Sin, 
Samas and Adad, as rulers of heaven under the command of Anu. 
This new grouping was the result of a theological development. 
I&tar was found to be one of the planets, and, therefore, not to 
be classed longer along with Sin and Samas". Adad, the god of 
the atmosphere, was thought to be a personality of sufficient dignity 
to take the place formerly occupied by Itar. 

bi-mah had--a mu-zu an-zak-ku (see on lines 1 and 2). 

4. u-mu-un nl-ki-ge bi-mah had-8-a mu-zu an-zak-[ku] 

lord, dread of earth, in the mighty thunder and the 
lightning flash thou declarest thy name. 

u-mu-un (see Hymn to Bel, line 1). 

nl-ki-ge: n\ is a value of IMMU equal to puluhtu, "fear" (see 
Hymn to Bel, line 18). ki equals irsitu, "earth" (see Hymn to 
Bel, line 9). ge is a postpositive sign of the genitive (see Br. 5935. 

bi-mah had--a mu-zu an-zak-ku (see lines 1 and 2). 

5 dimmer Mer u-mu-un ib-mal-la bi-mah had-d-a mu-zu an- 


Adad, lord of great wrath, in the mighty thunder and 
and the lightning flash thou declarest thy name. 


ib-mal-la: ib is a value of TUM equal to agdgu, "anger" 
(Br. 4954). mal is a value of IKU which is dialectic for PISANNU 
and also for MA.AL (see Hymn to Bel, lines 1 and 18, and 
Hymn to Sin, 2). ib-mal = "wrathful" (Br. 2242). 

bi-mah had--a mu-zu an-zak-ku (see on lines 1 and 2). 

6. tab-tab-ba u-mu-un dimmer ama-an-ki-ga bi-mah had-d-a 

[mu-zu an-zak-ku] 

twin, lord, bull-god of heaven and earth, in the mighty 
thunder and the lightning flash thou declarest thy name. 

bar-tab-ba equals tu'dmu, "twin" (Br. 1896). mas equals 
tu'dmu (Br. 1811), while the cognate bar equals lappu, "companion" 
(Br. 1807). mas, which represents the idea "cut", is more primitive 
than bar which represents the idea "side", mas is also equal to 
masu, "twin", a Sumerian loan-word in Assyrian, tab equals tappu 
(Br. 3775). tab may have been inserted, that bar "companion" 
should be taken rather than the narrower word "twin" (Hymn to 
Sin, 16). ba is a phonetic complement (Br. 102 and Hymn to Bel, 
line 25). Adad is called "twin" or "companion", because he possessed 
a composite nature, comprising in himself the elements of several 
gods. The manifestations of power seen in wind and rain and in 
lightning and thunder, would logically lead to the conclusion that 
his nature was divided, or that he brought to his aid several gods 
endowed with powers suited to different kinds of effort. The gods 
that aided Adad were sometimes looked upon as birds, one of 
whom was the god Zu, who presided over the tempest. Zu's mother 
mother was Siris, lady of the rain and clouds. Then there was 
Martu, the lord of the squall, and Barku, the genius of the light- 
ning. The son of Zu was a strong bull who pastured in the 
meadows, bringing abundance and fertility. There was also Sutu, 
the south wind. He, no doubt, was an agent of Adad's. There 
is another way in which Adad may be looked upon as twin-like 
in his nature. He could pass suddenly from the fiercest anger to 
gentlest kindness. He was represented in sculpture as carrying a 
battle-axe. Kings invoked his aid against their enemies. In his 
passionate rage he destroyed everything before him. When his 
wrath was appeased, however, there might come the gentle breeze 
and the refreshing shower. The fields which he had devastated 
he also caused to blossom and produce fruit and grain. 

dimmer (see Hymn to Bel, line 2). 

ama-an-ki-ga: ama equals rimu, "bull" (see Hymn to Bel, 
line 7 and 9). an (see Hymn to Bel, line 18). ki (see on line 4). 
ga seems to be a postposition (see MSL. p. XVI). ga might perhaps 
be equal to bau, "being" (Br. 6109). 

bi-mah had-e-a mu-zu an-zak-ku (see on lines 1 and 2). 


7. a-a dimmer Mer u-mu-un ud-da bar-ru-a mu-zu an-zak-ku 
father Adad, lord, when the light is darkened, thou 

declarest thy name. 

a-a (see Hymn to Bel, line 3). 

ud-da: ud equals wrrw, "light" (Br. 7798, also Hymn to Sin, 
line 17). da is a phonetic complement (see Hymn to Bel, line 16). 
mu-zu an-zak-ku (see on line 1). 

8. a-a Dimmer Mer u-gal-la bar-ru-a mu-zu an-zak-ku 

father Adad, when the great day is darkened, thou 

declarest thy name. 

u-gal-la: u (see Hymn to Sin, line 17). gal-la (see Hymn to 
Bel, line 14). 

bar-ru-a: bar equals pardsu, "cut off" (Br. 1785). The idea 
"cut", however, is more usually expressed by the value mas (see 
on line 6). ru, being a phonetic complement, limits us to the 
choice of the value bar here. 

9. a-a d i mmer Mer uku-gal-la bar-ru-a mu-zu an-zak-ku 

father Adad, when the great king is cut off, thou declarest 

thy name. 

uku-gal-la: uku a value of UG, which is here a Babylonian 
sign found, for instance, in the Cyrus Cylinder, equals both umu, 
"day", and Sarru, "king" (Br. 3861 and 3862). gal-la (see on line 8). 

10. dimmer Mer uku An-na bi-mah had--a mu-zu an-zak-ku 
Adad, king of Anu, in the mighty thunder and the 

lightning flash thou declarest thy name. 
dimmer j^^ ( see on fo^ 2). uku (see MSL. 344 and on line 9). 

11. mu-zu kalam-ma mu-un-ru-ru-ru 

Thy name is mightily magnificent in the earth. 

mu-zu (see on line 1). 

kalam-ma: kalam as a value is related to the sign-name 
KALAMMU and equals mdtu, "land" (Br. 5914). We have already 
had the value un (see Hymn to Bel, line 1). ma is a phonetic 
complement (see Hymn to Bel, line 1). 

mu-un-ru-ru-ru: mu-un (see Hymn to Sin, line 17). ru-ru-ru 
(see Hymn to Sin, line 14). A double form like ru-ru is common, 
but the triple form is rare, and expresses a very unusual emphasis. 

12. me-lam-zu kalam-ma tug-gim im-mi-in-dul 
The brightness covers the land like a garment. 

me-lam-zu (see Hymn to Bel, line 21). 
kalam-ma (see on line 11). 


tug-gim: tug equals $ubdtu, "clothing" (Br. 10551). gim is 
an EK form. We have had the ES form dim (Hymn to Sin, line 11). 

im-mi-in-dul: im is an indeterminate verbal prefix, but commonly 
used for the third person (see Br. p. 545). mi-in is a verbal infix, 
used chiefly of the third person (MSL. pp. XXIV and XXXII). Its 
antecedent here is kalam-ma. dul equals katdmu, "cover", but du 
also equals subtu, "dwelling" (see Hymn to Bel, line 14), connoting 
in both instances the idea "cover, shelter". 

13. za had aka-zu-su kur-yal a- a dimmer Mu-ul-lil sag im- 


The stone of the sceptre of thy thunder strikes the head 
of the great mountain, father Bel. 

za equals abnu, "stone" (Br. 11721 and Hymn to Sin, line 18). 
There is another sign used more commonly than ZAU to represent 
"stone"; namely, DAKKU. 

had (see on line 1). 

aka-zu-&U: oka equals ramdmu, "roar" (Br. 4746). The 
meaning of BAM as ramdmu seems to come through mnemonic 
paronomasia by way of the value oka as equal to ramu, "love". 
It is important to distinguish ramdmu from Ramman, an Assyrian 
name for Mer meaning "thunderer", as well as from ramdnu, "self". 
ramdnu self is often a pun on Ramman. zu (see Hymn to Bel, 
line 21). Su (see Hymn to Bel, line 15). 

kur-gal: kur (see Hymn to Bel, line 3). gal (see Hymn to 
Bel, line 14). 

a-a dimmer Mu-ul-lil (see Hymn to Bel, line 3). In the Hymn 
to Bel (line 16), Bel seems to be called a mountain. The thought 
probably is suggested by E-kur of Nippur. 

14. ursa-zu bma gal dimmer Nin-lil ba-e-di-hu-lah-e 
Thy thunder terrifies the great mother Belit. 

ursa equals ramdmu (Br. 8556). ur is a value of HAR which 
itself may mean ramdmu (Br. 8539) and sa is a value of DU 
which we know means aldku. ursa must mean "advancing thunder". 

hma equals ummu, "mother". The idea of "mother" arises 
out of "amplitude", which the sign is intended pictorially to represent. 
damal is a common value of the same sign (see Hymn to Bel, line 10). 

gal (Hymn to Bel, line 14). 

dimmer Nin-h'l. Nm-lil is the Sumerian name of Belit, the 
consort of Bel. Nin equals B&llu, "lady". HI has the same meaning 
as in En-lil or Mul-lil (see Hymn to Bel, line 2). Nin-til is 
exactly the reverse with respect to sex of jEn-liL B61it, like Bel, 
had a temple at Nippur which dates back apparently to the time 


of the early dynasties of Ur. It was, however, simply a dim 
shadow of the temple of B1. The goddess of the divine family 
never achieved the popularity attained by the god, the father of 
the family. Besides being called Nin-lil, "lady of mercy" (Br. 5932), 
she was sometimes called Nin-har-sag, "lady of the high mountain", 
which would indicate that she dwelt with Bel in E-kur, "the 
mountain house". Under the name of Nin-har-sag, Belit had 
a temple also at Girsu, one of the divisions of the town of 
Laga. Nin-har-sag was sometimes addressed as "the mother of 
the gods". 

ba-e-di-hu-ldh-e is a verb, ba is an indeterminate verbal 
prefix. Here it is third person (see Hymn to Bel, line 25). e (see 
Hymn to Bel, line 18). di is an unusual infix; it is probably used 
here in the interest of vowel harmony for da (see Hymn to Bel, 
line 16). hu-ldh is the verb itself and is equal to galdtu, "frighten" 
(Br. 2076). On closer analysis, hu must be a prefix of generalization ; 
for example hu may equal am@lu, "man" (Br. 2050). Idh must 
be the real verb; it is equal to galdtu (Br. 6166). e must be 
a vowel of prolongation. The usual phonetic complement after 
Idh is ha. 

The fear of the lightning of Adad in this hymn is somewhat 
like that expressed in the Babylonian Epic of Gilgame, Eleventh 
Tablet. The lord of the storm caused the heavens to rain heavily. 
There arose from the foundation of heaven a black cloud. The 
thunderbearers marched over mountain and plain, and Ninib con- 
tinued pouring out rain and Adad's violence reached to heaven. 
The southern blast blew hard. Like a battle-charge upon mankind 
the waters rushed. One could no longer see an other. The gods 
were dismayed at the flood. They sought refuge by ascending 
the highest heaven, cowering like dogs. On the battlements of 
heaven thy crouched and iStar screamed like a woman in travail. 

15. din a ir En-lil-li dumu-ni dimmer Mer-ra a mu-un-da-an-aka 
Bel to his son Mer measures out power: 

dingir ^Em..lil-li: Bel's name has appeared before in this hymn, 
but in the ES form (line 13). **w*r En-Kl (see Hymn to Sin, 
line 5). li (see Hymn to Bel, line 23). 

dumu-ni: (see on line 3). ni (see Hymn to Bel, line 13). 

a (see Hymn to Bel, line 14) = ID. 

mu-un-da-an-aka: mu-un (see Hymn to Sin, line 17). da-an 
is a verbal infix (MSL. pp. XX IV and XXXII). Its antecedent 
here is dumu-ni. oka: we have had aka equal to ramdmu (line 13), 
but here we have aka equal to madddu, "measure out", madddu, 
"measure out", is a pun on madddu, "love" (thus MSL. p. 21). 


16. mulu dumu-mu u um-me-si-si-si u um-me-si-ld-ld 
Thou who art my son, the day thou didst lift up the eye, 

the day thou didst look! 

mulu: The sign is the usual ideogram for "man", but may 
stand for the Assyrian sa, as here. Note that the sign takes the 
value lu in composition (see Hymn to Bel, line 20). 

dumu-mu: dumu (see line 3). mu is a suffix of the first 
person (Br. 1241). There are three pronominal mu's. First, the 
determinate pronominal suffix mu of the first person, cognate with 
ma-e, the personal pronoun of the first person; this is the mu 
we have here. Secondly, there is a mu of mu~un, the indeterminate 
verbal prefix, mun or mu-un is simply this mu nasalized. We 
have had this mu quite often. Finally, there is another mu, an 
indeterminate suffix, which is related to mu of mu-un, rather than 
to mu, the cognate of ma-e. This indeterminate mu is found at 
the end of relative clauses. We shall meet it in the Hymn to 
Tammuz (see below). 

ft (see Hymn to Sin, line 17). 

um-me-si-si-si is a verb, um-me is a indeterminate verbal 
prefix, but is chosen here for the second person, since mu-un is 
so often used for the third person, umme is not a very common 
prefix. It stands for ume which is a shortened form of umeni. 
si: 1 with the value ige or ide we have seen equals inu, "eye" 
(see Hymn to Sin, line 16). si here, however, seems to be regarded 
as a part of the verbal stem and hence slips in between the prefix 
and the root, si-si (see Hymn to B61, line 22). The Sumerian 
idiom means "fill the eye". 

um-me-si-ld-ld: um-me-si (just explained). Id-Id: Id is a value 
of LALLU which occurs as a phonetic complement in the word 
En-lil-ld (Hymn to Sin, line 5) also equals nasu, "lift up" (Br. 10101). 

17. dimmer Mer-ri u um-me-si-si-si u um-me-si-ld-ld 

Adad, the day thou didst lift up the eye, the day thou 

didst look! 

dimmer Mer (see on line 2). ri (see Hymn to Bel, line 19). 
u um-me- si- si-si u um-me-si-ld-ld (see on line 16). 

18. u iminna-bi-mes ba-gan-tal-ld u um-me-si-ld-ld 
During those seven days thou didst blow a full blast, 

when thou didst look. 

u (see Hymn to Sin, line 17). 

iminna-bi-mes: iminna is the Sumerian word for "seven". The 
sign in our text consists of seven uprights, four above and three 
below. The Assyrian form consists of three above, three in the 
middle and one at the bottom, bi is the demonstrative pronoun 


= "those" (Br. 5134 and Hymn to Sin, line 27). me$ is the 
Sumerian sign of the plural number (Br. 10470). The sign is 
composed of ME and E and means "many". 

ba-gan-tal-ld: ba (see on line 14) ; ba = prefix, gan is an 
infix here of adverbial and corroborative character (see Hymn to 
Bel, line 9). lal is a value of RI equal to zdku, "blow" (Br. 2581). 
We assume tal to be the correct value because of the following 
LALLU = Id (see on line 16). 

u um-me-St-ld-ld (see line 16). This interesting statement on 
the flood agrees entirely with the story of the flood in the Eleventh 
Tablet of the Babylonian Epic of Gilgames". The difference between 
the length of the Hebrew and that of the Babylonian deluge is 
significant. The narrative of Pirnapistim, the Babylonian Noah, 
is quite graphic. He represents the gods as seated weeping, 
their lips covered in fear. Six days and nights the wind blew. 
When the seventh day appeared, the storm subsided, the sea began 
to dry and the flood was ended He looked upon the sea, man- 
kind was turned to clay, corpses floated like reeds. He opened 
the window. He sent forth a dove which returned. He sent forth 
a raven, which saw the carrion on the water, ate, and wandered 
away, but did not return. He built an altar on the peak of the 
mountain and set forth vessels by sevens. The gods smelled the 
savour and gathered to the sacrifice, and the great goddess lifted 
up the rainbow which Anu had created. Those days he thought 
upon and forgot not. 

19. u I di-zu-ka hhr-ha-ra ab-ba ti um-me-&i-ld-ld 

It was the day of the word of thy judgment, bull-god 
of the abyss, the day thou didst look. 

H (line 16). 

I equals amdtu, "word" (Br. 518, see also Hymn to Sin, line 16). 

di-zu-ka: di equals ddnu, "judgment" (Br. 9525 and Hymn 
to Bel, line 7). zu (Hymn to Bel, line 21). lea = nota genitivi 
(Hymn to B61, line 1). 

hhr-ha-ra is the same as hhr-har-a. hhr is a value of GUTTU, 
meaning kardu, "heroic one" (MSL. p. 174). We have had the 
sign with the value gu (Hymn to Bel, line 9). ha-ra, phonetic 
representation of har-a, with the same meaning as har of GUTTU, 
plus phonetic complement. 

ab-ba: ab equals tdmtu, "sea" (Br. 3822). The common word 
for "sea" is AB.ZU, written ZU.AB, meaning 'sea of wisdom", the 
abode of Ea, the god of wisdom, ab also equals aptu, "abyss" 
(Br. 3815). ab, "sea", or "abyss" is a shortened form of a-ab, 



"water enclosure", "water space". AB with the value s we have 
had (Hymn to Sin, line 10). 
u um-me-si-ld-ld (line 16). 

20. nim-gir luh su-si-su mu-ra-du-ud 

As the lightning, a messenger for terror, thou didst go. 

nim-gir equals birku, "lightning" (Br. 9020). nim-gir literally 
means "high lightning", nim equals elu, "high", gir alone equals 
birku (Br. 306). The sign GIRU in its primitive form is a picture 
of a "dagger". From the conception of the "dagger", there is, of 
course, but a short step to that of the forked lightning. 

luh equals sukkattu, "messenger" (Br. 6170). We have had 
the sign SUKKALLU with the value lah (line 14, lah, and Hymn 
to Sin, line 27). 

su-Si-Su equals noun su-Si and postposition su. su-si: SU.S"l 
means "increase of eye" and equals salummatu which means 
"splendour", or perhaps "terror". SU.SI might be read su-lim. 
SU.ZI, however, has the same meaning (see Br. 235 and 187, also 
MSL. p. 298), proving the reading SU.SI. 

mu-ra-du-ud: mu (see Hymn to Bel, line 18). ra is an infix 
of adverbial character denoting motion (MSL. p. XXIV). du-ud is 
no doubt for du-du, an intensified form of du (see Hymn to Bel, 
line 23, gin). 

21. mulu dumu-mu ru gin-na-gin-na a-ba zi-gi-en te-ga 
When thou who art my son goest violently about, who 

can attack like thee! 

mulu dumu-mu (see on line 16). 

ru equals ndkdpu, "break forth violently", or "storm furiously", 
(Br. 9144). Here we come near to the primary idea of the sign 
which is that of "the goring bull" (see Hymn to Sin, line 14). 

gin-na-gin-na: DU = aldku may have any one of three values, 
gin, turn or ra (Br. 4871). gin is the correct value here, as is 
shown by the phonetic complement na. The value du must be 
closely related to turn and gin. du by change of d to t and by 
addition of the nasal m becomes turn, turn by change of t to g, 
of u to i and of m to n becomes gin. 

a-ba equals mannu, "who" (Br. 11370). See also below. 

zi-gi-en probably is a phonetic and dialectic form for za-e-gim 
(line 22). 

te-ga: te equals tehu, "attack" (Br. 7688). ga: BA is probably 
dialectic for ga (Br. 103) which would be the same as PISANNU, 
i. e., basu, "being", or Sakdnu, "establishing". 



22. ki-bala hul gig a-a muh-zu-su a-ba za-e-gim te-ga 

The troublesome evil hostile land, father, which is 
against thee, who like thee can attack! 

ki-bala: ki (see Hymn to Bel, line 9). bala equals palu, 
"weapon" (Br. 276). From the idea of "weapon", it is easy to 
pass to that of "hostility", expressed by nukurtu (Br. 272). 

hul equals limnu, "bad" (see Br. 9502 and Hymn to Sin, 
line 16, hul). 

gig equals marsu, "sick" (Br. 9235). The sign is composite, 
the principal element of which is MI meaning "black". 

a-a (see Hymn to Bel, line 3). 

muh-zu-su: muh equals eli, "upon", or "against" (Br. 8841). 
zu (Hymn to Bel, line 21). Sit (Hymn to Bel, line 15) governs 
the phrase muh-zu. 

a-ba (see on line 21). 

za-e-gim: za-e (see Hymn to Bel, line 16). gim (see line 12). 

te-ga (see on line 21). 

23. nd imi tur-tur-e su-um-me-ti a-ba za-e-gim te-ga 

The little stone of the storm do thou take. Who can 
attack like thee! 

nd: DAKKU has three values for abnu, "stone", za, si and nd. 
We have also had the sign ZA with the value za equal to abnu 
(line 13). No doubt DAKKU indicates "hailstone" here. 

imi is the common value of the sign IMMU for Sdru, "storm" 
(Br. 8369). 

tur-tur-e: tur (see Hymn to Sin, line 28, ban-da). The sign 
is DUMU (lines 3, 15 and 16). e (see Hymn to Bel, line 3). 

Su-um-me-ti: su is a part of the verbal conjugation (see Hymn 
to Bel, line 25), making it causal, um-me (see on line 16). tt 
equals laku, "take" (Br. 1700). This is the same word as ti 
meaning "life" (Hymn to Bel, line 16). 

a-ba za-e-gim te-ga (see on line 22). 

24. nd gal-gal-e su-um-me-ti a-ba za-e-gim te-ga 

The large stone do thou take. Who like thee can attack! 

nd (see on line 23). 

gal-gal-e: gal (see Hymn to Bel, line 14). e (see Hymn to 
Bel, line 3). 

su-um-me-ti a-ba za-e-gim te-ga (see line 23). 

25. nd tur-tur-zu nd gal-gal-zu muh-ba u-me-dm 

Thy little stone, thy large stone, on it (the land) let it be! 



nd (see on line 23). 

gal-gal-zu: gal (see Hymn to B1, line 14). zu (Hymn to 
Bel, line 21). 

tur-tur-zu: tur (see on line 23). 

muk-ba : muh (see line 22). ba is a pronominal suffix of the 
third person singular (Br. 114). 

u-me-dm verb in the imperative mood, u-me, the same as 
um-me (line 16). dm (see Hymn to Bel, line 12). 

26. Jci-bala-a zi-da-zu u-mu-e-gul da bur su u-mu-e-se 

The hostile land thy right hand destroys. It gives com- 
plete destruction (?) 

ki-bala-a (see on line 22). a (see Hymn to Bel, line 9). 

zi-da-zu: zi equals imnu, 'right hand" (Br. 2312). da is a 
phonetic complement (see Hymn to Bel, line 4). zu (see Hymn 
to Bel, line 21). 

u-mu-e-gul: u is an indeterminate verbal prefix; it is used 
of the third person (Br. p. 547; see also Hymn to Bel, line 1). 
mu-e constitutes a double verbal infix, the mu being pronominal 
and the e adverbial, mu (see line 16 and Hymn to Bel, line 18). 
e (see Hymn to Bel, line 18). gul equals abdtu, "destroy" (Br. 8954). 

da equals idu, "strength" (see Hymn to Bel, line 16). bur 
equals nasdhu, "tear away" (Br. 7528). The sign SfEU occurs 
only here in all of the four hymns of this Thesis, su is the 
common word for "body", represented by zumru (Br. 172). This 
translation is only provisional. 

u-mu-e-se: u-mu-e (just explained) se equals naddnu, "give" 
(Br. 4418). Brunnow gives to the sign the value si, when it stands 
for naddnu. 

27. dimmer Mer-ri dug-dug-ga a-a muh-na-su ges-ni ba-si-in-ag 
Adad, when he speaks (to one), father, on him he 

imposes his government. 

dimmer Mer-ri (see on line 17). 

dug-dug-ga is a AaZ-clause equal to "in commanding", dug 
(see Hymn to Sin, line 15). 

a-a (see Hymn to Bel, line 3). 

muh-na-Su: muh (see line 22). na, pronominal suffix of the 
third person (see Hymn to Bel, line 1). sit (see Hymn to Bel, 
line 15). 

geS-ni: ges equals sutesuru, "government" (Br. 5706). ni 
Hymn to Bel, line 13). 

ba-si-in-ag: ba (see Hymn to Bel, line 25). Sufix si-in (see 
Hymn to Sin, line 16). ag (see Hymn to Bel, line 25). 


28. a-a dimm *r Mer 2-ta e-a-ni u \ di na-nam 

Father Adad, when he comes out of the house he fixes 
the day of judgment. 

e-ta: 2 (see Hymn to Sin, line 3) ta (see Hymn to Bel, line 15). 

3-a-ni: e (see Hymn to Bel, line 15). a is a vowel of pro- 
longation, which e is accustomed to take (see Hymn to Bel, line 9). 
ni (see (Hymn to Bel, line 13). 

u (see Hymn to Sin, line 17). 

I (see on line 19). 

di (see on line 19). 

na-nam : na is an indeterminate verbal prefix (see MSL. p. XXIV 
and Hymn to Bel, lines 1 and 18). nam evidently a verb here, 
equals Simtu, "fixing" (Br. 2103). 

29. e-ta eri-ta &-a-ni uku dan-da na-nam 

When he comes out of the house out of the city, he 
fixes the mighty day. 

%-ta (see on line 28). 
eri-ta: eri (see Hymn to Bel, line 13). 
d-a-ni (see on line 28). 
uku (see on line 9). 

ban-da equals ekdu, 'strong" (Br. 4127). ban-da, following 
the idea "strength", also equals "young" (see Hymn to Sin, line 28). 
na-nam (see line 28). 

30. eri-ta an-na-ta gar-ra-ni u I har-ra na-nam 

When he establishes himself out of the city, out of heaven, 
he fixes the day of curse. 

eri-ta (see line 29. 

an-na-ta: an-na (see Hymn to Bel, line 18). ta (see Hymn 
to Bel, line 15). 

gar-ra-ni: gar equals sakdnu, "establish" (Br. 11978). ro, 
phonetic complement, (Hym to Bel, line 3). ni (see line 28). 

u (see Hymn to Sin, line 17). 

), (see on line 19). 

har-ra: bar equals usurtu, "curse" (Br. 8545). ra, phonetic 

na-nam (see on line 28). 

31. . . $r lim-ma dimmer Mer 
.... Hymn to Adad. 

Chapter IV 

Tablet 29628, Plate 19, Hymn to Tammuz 

1. Ses-e tu$(KU)-e-na eri 3r(A.I)-ra na-nam 

To the brother whose dwelling is the city of weeping, thus: 

2. a-kala ses-e tab An-na 

The mightiness of the brother, the companion of Anu! 

3. a-kala a(lD)-ba en dimmer 2)umu(^\JK)-zi 

The mightiness of his power, the lord Tammuz! 

4. dumu(TUE) e(BIT)-gal-a-ni nu mu-un-su(SUD,S\JG)-ga-mu 
The son whose temple is not far away! 

5. azag dimmer Ncmd-ge(KlT) e(BlT) An-na-ka im-me 
The shining one of ISstar, who is in the house of Anu! 

6. mulu u-sun-na-ge(KIT) nu mu-un-su-ga-mu 

The one of plant-germination, who is not far away! 

7. azag * r Nand-ge(KlT) za NANNA Unug(mU)- ki -ka im-me 
The shining one of Itar, who is the NANNA-stone of Erech! 

8. mulu zib(KA.)-ba-ra-ge(KIT) nu mu-un-su(S\JV,SUG)-ga-mu 
The one of speech, who is not far away! 

9. bara-ka azag dimmer Nand-ge(K.n) te ki-ka im-me 

In the temple, the shining one of IStar, who is the foundation 
of the land! 

10. mulu ka-ds-ka-sa-ge(KlT) nu mu-un-su(SUV,Sl!G)-ga-mu 
The one of much wine, who is not far away! 

11. azag dimmer Nand-ge(KlT) sa(LIB)-mu u-sun mu-un-si-mal(IG) 
The shining one of Istar, whose heart is full of plant-production ! 

12. mulu hul-maKlGi) nu mu-un-su-ga-mu 

The one enduring evil, who is not far away! 

13. dimmer mutin(GrE&'TIN) An-na-ge(KIT) ka$(BI)-ra-bi mu-un- 

The wine-god of Anu, to whom they present their offering! 

14. mulu u-sun-na-ge(KlT) a-wa-om(A.AN) Su-ba ab-rii(UL) 
The one of plant-germination, what does his hand ordain! 

15. mulu zib(KA.)-ba-ra-ge(KIT) 
The one of speech! 

16. mulu ka-ds-ka-sa-ge(KlT) 
The one of much wine! 


17. mulu hul-mal(lG) a-na-am(A.AN) su-ba ai-^w(DU) 
The one who endures evil, whither does his hand go! 

18. dimmer mutin(GE&TI$) An-na-ge(KLT) PAIJADU sigisse-ra 

The wine-god of Anu, to whom they offer the lamb of sacrifice ! 

19. nim-me azag dimmer Nand-ra 2(KA) mu-un-na-ab-e-e 

The lofty one, the shining one of Itar, to whom they speak! 

20. nim-me kt mu-lu ni ma-ra an-pad-de($E) a-na mu-un-ba-e-e 
The lofty one of earth who is the abundance of the land, to 

whom they speak! what do they say? 

21. 2(BIT) kas(El)-a-ka (BIT) gurun(KlL)-na-ka dumuCNJR) mu- 

lu azag zu-ge(K.lT) ne-ne mu-un-til-li 

In the house of wine, in the house of fruit, the son, the 
shining one of wisdom, who indeed lives! 

22. nim-me azag dimmer rawtfn(GETIN) An-na-ge(K.n) 2(KA) 


The lofty one, the shining one, the wine-god of Anu, to whom 
they speak! 

23. nim-me ki ses ma-ra an-pad-de(SE) a-na-am(A.AN) mu-un- 


The lofty one of earth, the brother of the land, to whom 
they speak! what is it (that they say)? 


24. 2(BIT) kas(BI)-a-ka a(BIT) gurun(KlL)-na-ka dumu(TUE) mulu 

azag zu-ge(KIT) sigtsse-sag tuk-a-na 

In the house of wine , in the house of fruit , the son , the 
shining one of wisdom, who has a great sacrifice! 

25. ur-sag 9& ku-a sag-mal-mal-ge(Kn) 
The hero of great weapons! 

26. dimmer mutin (GETIN) An-na-ge(KYF) u-sun-na sag-mal- 

The wine-god of Anu, the great plant-germinator ! 

27. u-sun gurun(KIL)-gurun(KIL) u-sun gurun(KIL)-gurun(KIL) 

ses-mu u-sun gurun(KIL)-gurun(KlL') 

The germinator of many fruits, the germinator of many fruits, 
my brother, the germinator of many fruits! 

28. u-sun a-ra-li u-sun ^tmm(KIL)-<jrurun(KIL) ses-mu u-sun gu- 


The germinator of the lower world, the germinator of many 
fruits, my brother, the germinator of may fruits! 


29. in-nu #$(US) 3 gu-ga-ge(KIT) ttil(L)-ta-al-ta-al mu-ib-rd 

The vegetable-germinator, the only plant-begetter, who goeth forth ! 

30. dumu(TUR) zi-ga-na ga-ni sa(LIB)-zz-2Z mu-ib-rd(D\3) 
The son of life; in his fulness, in the midst of life goeth. 

81. es dis er(A.l)-lim(LIB)-ma M* Dumu-zi-da-kam 
Thirty lines. Hymn to Tammuz. 

The salient phases of the rounded out Tammuz story are 
touched upon in this hymn; viz., his local dwelling in a city where he 
had a temple; the memorial weeping; his relation to Anu; his 
lordly power; his specification as "a brother"; his relation to the 
goddess Itar; his characteristic and supreme function of plant- 
germination. Note also that he was the agricultural god of spring 
vegetation. Offerings of wine were poured out over his bier, he 
having been humbled to sorrow by banishment to the lower world, 
where he became a lord over the occult and internal forces in- 
herent beneath the soil of the earth. So he became a god of a 
new life. The hymn does not seem altogether to confine the 
germinating work of Tammuz to the vegetation of spring growth, 
but appears, especially in the Reverse, to include fruit growing 
which might come later in the season. Possibly this hymn was 
sung as a dirge at Babylonian anniversaries for the departed 
Tammuz. The Babylonians at the time of the summer solstice 
annually commemorated with lamentation the departure of Tammuz 
to the lower world. He had instructed them that they should 
gather at his bier and that hired musicians should sing and play 
and that the people should sacrifice and drink wine. 


1. ses-e tus-e-na eri dr-ra na-nam 

To the brother whose dwelling is the city of weeping, thus : 

ses-e: ses same as Sis (Hymn to Sin, line 2). e equals ana, 
"to" (Br. 5847). 

tuS-e-na: tus equals asdbu, "dwell" (Br. 10523). Probably 
the sign has the same value for subtu, "dwelling" (Br. 10553). We 
have had the sign (KU) with the value su (Hymn to Bel, line 15). 
e, vowel of prolongation, wa, pronominal suffix (see Hymn to 
Adad, line 27). 

eri (Hymn to Bel, line 13). 

tr-ra\ r (Hymn to Bel, Colophon), ra, phonetic complement 
(Hymn to B61, line 3). 

na-nam equals kiam, "thus" (see Br. 1597 and Hymn to 
Adad, line 28). The words "0 my brother" are represented in 


legend as being first uttered by the sister of Tammuz and then 
taken up by other mourners. Probably the custom of weeping for 
Tammuz originated in the city of Eridu. 

2. a-kala Ses-e tab An-na 

The mightiness of the brother, the companion of Anu! 

a-kala is an abstract noun like nam-kala which is equal to 
dannutu (Br. 6194). a is an abstract prefix, as in A.DU, equal 
to a-ra, "going" (MSL. p. XVII). kola, equal dannu, "mighty" 
(Br. 6194). 

ses-e. See on Ses (line 1). e, probably sign of the genitive, 
if not merely a vowel of prolongation. It can certainly be a post- 
position (see on line 1). 

tab (see Hymn to Adad, line 6). 

An-na (see Hymn to Adad, line 3 and Hymn to Bel, line 18). 
Tammuz was a companion of Gi&zida in the dominion of Anu. 
Gilszida was also a god of vegetable growth. At a certain period 
of the year, Tammuz and Giszida were stationed in companionship 
as attendants at the gate of heaven. Here the power of Tammuz 
to cause vegetation to grow began to be effective. He was, in 
the first days of his existence, a sun-god, and, stationed in heaven, 
the rays of his power were felt on earth. So, probably every 
year, at the time of spring growth, he was conceived of as operating 
from heaven like a sun. 

3. a-kala h-ba en dimmer D umu .zi 

The mightiness of his power, the lord Tammuz! 

a-kala (see on line 2). 

h-ba: a (see Hymn to Bel, line 14). ba (Hymn to Adad, line 25). 
en (see Hymn to Bel, line 19). 

dimmer Du mu . z i. Dumu-zi means "son of life". Dumu (Hymn 
to Sin, line 5). zi (see Hymn to Bel, line 23). 

4. dumu e-gal-a-ni nu mu-un-su-ga-mu 
The son whose temple is not far away! 

dumu (see Hymn to Sin, line 5, tu-mu). 

e-gal-a-ni: e-gal equals ekattu, "temple", (Br. 6252). E.GAL, 
"great house", is the common compound ideogram for "temple", 
both in Sumerian and Assyrian. The Assyrian ekallu is evidently 
the Sumerian , plus gal which is changed to kal. The word has 
passed over into Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic. (see Hymn to 
Sin, line 3). gal (see Hymn to Bel, line 14). e-gal is often 
followed by la; here, however, it is followed by a, showing that 
the phonetic use of la and a is quite similar, ni (see Hymn to 
Bel, line 13). 


nu (Hymn to Sin, line 27). 

mu-un-su-ga-mu is a verb and seems to mean "who is far 
away". The clause occurs also in lines six, eight, ten and twelve, 
only that in lines six and twelve SU is used instead of SUD. 
mu-un (see Hymn to Sin, line 17). su: SUD seems to equal 
ruku, "distant", here. Yet when it is equal to ruku, it generally 
has the value sud and is followed by the phonetic complement 
da-, here it is followed by ga. So the value should be sug or 
su. mu is a relative suffix related to mu of mu-un (see Hymn 
to Adad, line 16). 

5. azag dimmer 2^and-ge % An-na-ka im-me 

The shining one of IStar, who is in the house of Anu! 

azag (see Hymn to Sin, line 1). 

dimmer Nand-ge. Uand, also written Nanna, is the Sumerian 
name of Itar. NANNU is sometimes written like El which, when 
preceded by the god-sign, also equals "Istar". ge (see Hymn to 
Adad, line 4). 

3 (see Hymn to Sin, line 3). 

An-na-ka (see Hymn to Adad, line 4). ka equals nota genitivi 
(see Br. 551 and Hymn to Bel, line 1). 

im-me: im (see Hymn to Sin, line 23). me (Hymn to Bel, 
line 16). Tammuz seems to be the shining one. The epithet 
"shining" is sometimes applied to gods, goddesses, kings, princes 
and others. The primary relaltion of Tammuz was that of lover. 
But in the lower world he made love to another. But each year 
during the season of vegetable growth he was supposed to be 
living with I^tar and during the season of vegetable decline he 
was supposed to be living with the other whom he loved in the 
regions below. The house of Anu might mean the temple of Anu, 
but the reference in this line is no doubt to heaven, over which 
Anu was lord and at whose portals Tammuz sometimes acted 
as porter. 

6. mulu u-sun-na-ge nu mu-un-su-ga-mu 

The one of plant-germination, who is not far away! 

mulu (see Hymn to Adad, line 16). 

u-sun-na-ge: u-sun seems to be a compound noun meaning 
"plant-growing". It occurs eight times in the hymn, u equals 
sammu, "plant" (Br. 6027). It is sometime a determinative 
before the name of a plant (Br. 6029). sun means "irrigate" 
(MSL. 299). It is improbable that this sign is KIB. ge (see Hymn 
to Adad, line 4). 

nu (see Hymn to Sin, line 27). 

mu-un-su-ga-mu (see line 4). sw(SU) and ,sw(SUD,SUG) are 
interchangeable (Br. 7593). 


7. azag M** Nand-ge za NANNA Unug-ka im-me 

The shining one of Is" tar, who is the NANNA-stone of Erech! 

azag dimmer Nana-ge (see on line 5). 

za: the probable meaning of za here is "stone" (see Hymy to 
Adad, line 13). 

NANNA: there are no citations in Briinnow showing the 
meaning of NANNA when standing alone. za-NANNA-dz equals 
mammu, "snow", and za-NANNA may mean "white stone". If 
NANNA can equal ULANU-GUNfr, then it can mean nasdku 
(Br. 3019) and za-NANNA means "shining stone". It may be that 
NANNA stands for USLANU-GUNfr , then ZA.NANNA.UNU.KI 
could be equal to Unug~ ki ; (Br. 11749), and the line would read 
azag dimmer Nand-ge Unug- ki -ka im-me, "the shining one of Istar of 
Erech he is". 

Umig: that Unug is the correct value is shown by the phonetic 
complement ga that often follows UNU. Erech, we know, was the 
city of Istar (Br. 3023). unu (see Hymn to Sin, line 2). ka (line 5) 

im-me (see on line 5). 

8. mulu zib-ba-ra-ge nu mu-un-su-ga-mu 
The one of speech, who is not far away! 

mulu (see Hymn to Adad, line 16). 

zib-ba-ra-ge: zib-ba (see Hymn to Sin, line 16, gu). ra must 
answer for vowel prolongation (Hymn to Bel, line 3). ge (see 
Hymn to Adad, line 4). "One of speech" must mean the god 
endowed with authoritative utterance on the subject of germination. 

nu mu-un-su-ga-mu (see on line 4). 

9. bara-ka azag dimmer Nand-ge te ki-ka im-me 

In the temple the shining one of Itar, who is the foun- 
dation of the land! 

bara-ka: bara equals parakku, "dwelling room in the temple" 
(Br. 6878). ka (line 5). 

azag <*mmer Nand-ge (line 5). 

te equals temennu, 'foundation" (Br. 7710). 

ki-ka: ki (Hymn to Bel, line 9). ka (Hymn to Bel, line 1). 

im-me (line 5). 

10. mulu ka-ds-ka-sa-ge nu mu-un-su-ga-mu 
The one of much wine, who is not far away! 

mulu (see Hymn to Adad, line 16). 

ka-ds is evidently a phonetic representation of ka$(BI), cognate 
with ges in geittin and equal to kardnu, "wine" (Br. 5121, 5004 
and 5006). 


ka-sa-ge: ka-sa may be a phonetic form for kas equal to 
sind, "two" (Br. 4459). Perhaps it would be better to consider 
ka-d ka-sa as a reduplication of kaS, as ka$-kas(s) = "much 
wine", ge (Hymn to Adad, line 4). One form of the legend 
makes Tammuz the begetter of autumn vegetation. If so, he is 
the producer of much wine. More likely the meaning is that, on 
his account, much wine was offered in the service of lamentation 
at his departure. 

nu mu-un-su-ga-mu (see on line 4). 

11. azag dimmer Nand-ge sa-mu u-sun mu-un-si-mal 
Theshiningone of Istar, whose heart is full of plant-production! 

azag dimmer Nand-ge (line 5). 

sh-mu : sa Hymn to Sin, line 9, Sag). Relative mu (see line 4). 

u-sun (line 6). 

mu-un-si-mal. mu-un (see Hymn to Sin, line 17). si (see 
Hymn to Bel, line 22). mat (see Hymn to Bel, line 18). Plant 
growth is a matter of intelligent devising on the part of Tammuz. 

12. mulu hul-mal nu mu-un-su-ga-mu 

The one enduring evil, who is not far away! 
mulu (see Hymn to Adad, line 16). 

hul-mal equals Umnu, "evil" (Br. 9508). hul equals lim&nu. 
"be evil", mal (Hymn to Bel, line 18). 
nu mu-un-su-ga-mu (line 6). 

13. dimmer mutin An-na-ge kas-ra-bi mu-un-sub 

The wine-god of Anu, to whom they present their offering! 

mutin is "wood of life", mu being ES for ges, "wood", and 
tin being for ti (Hymn to Bel, line 16). 

An-na-ge: An-na (see Hymn to Adad, line 3). ge (Hymn 
to Adad, line 4). 

ka-ra-bi: kas equals sikaru, "strong drink" (Br. 5126). ra 
answers as a vowel of prolongation (Hymn to Bel, line 3). If ra 
were a postposition, it would follow the suffix bi (on which see 
Hymn to Sin, line 27). 

mu-un-sub : mu-un (Hymn to Sin, line 17). sub equals nadu, 
"cast down" (Br. 1434). RU signifies "bent down". The attitude 
of the mourners may be noted. 

14. mulu u-sun-na-ge a-na-dm su-ba ab-ru 

The one of plant-germination, what does his hand ordain ! 

mulu u-sun-na-ge (see line 6). 

a-na-dm equals minammi (Br. 11436) which is the same as 
minu "what?" (Br. 11434). Note that a-ba (Hymn to Adad, 
line 21) equals mannu, "who?" 


u-ba: su (Hymn to Bel, line 25). ba (see Hymn to Adad, 
line 25). 

ab-ru: ab (Hymn to Bel, line 16). ru (Hymn to Sin, line 14). 

15. mulu zib-ba-ra-ge 
The one of speech! 

See line 8. 

16. mulu ka-d$-ka-sa-ge 
The one of much wine! 

See line 10. 

17. mulu hul-mal a-na-dm su-ba ab-gin 

The one who endures evil, whither does his hand go! 
mulu hul-mal (line 12) 
a-na-am su-ba (line 14). 
ab-gin: ab (Hymn to Bel, line 16). gin (Hymn to Bel, line 23). 

18. dimmer mutin An-na-ge PAHADU sigi$3e-ra mu-un-3ub-bi 
The wine-god of Anu, to whom they offer the lamb of sacrifice! 

dimmer mutin An-ua-ge (line 13). 

PAHADU, Assyrian for "lamb". The sign is PISANNU en- 
closing GESTARti (Br. 5489). The Sumerian value of the sign 
is not known. Among the few citations in which the sign appears, 
a female lamb is mentioned (Br. 10946). 

sigiSSe-ra: sigisse equals niku, "sacrifice", and ra answers as 
a vowel of prolongation which the sign takes (Br. 9092). 

mu-un-sub-bi: mu-un-^ub (line 13). bi is a phonetic complement. 

19. nim-rne azag dimmer 2^and-ra \ mu-un-na-ab-e-e 

The lofty one, the shining one of IStar, to whom they speak. 

nim-me: nim (see Hymn to Adad, line 20). me, phonetic 

azag (Hymn to Sin, line 1.) 

dimmer N a nd-ra: Dimmer $ ana ^ e 5) m (Hymn to Bel, line 3). 

I (Hymn to Adad, line 19). 

mu-un-na-ab-e-e: mu-un (Hymn to Sin, line 17). na-ab is a 
verbal infix = "to him", third person here (MSL. p. XXXII). e-e 
(Hymn to B61, line 14). 

20. nim-me ki mu-lu ni ma-ra an-pad-de a-na mu-un-ba-e-e 
The lofty one of the earth who is the abundance of the 

land, to whom they speak. What doth he say! 
nim-me (line 19). 
ki (Hymn to Bel, line 9). 
mu-lu (Hymn to Bel, line 20). 
ni (Hymn to Bel, line 13). 


an-pad-de: an (Hymn to Adad, line 1). pad (Hymn -to Sin, 
line 10). de, phonetic complement. 

a-na equals minu, "what" (Br. 11434), the same as a-na-dm 
(line 14). 

mu-un-ba-e-e : mu-un (Hymn to Sin, line 17). ba may be 
used as an infix as well as a prefix (MSL. p. XXIV, and Hymn to 
Bel, lines 24 and 25). e-e (line 19). 

21. 2 kaS-a-ka & gurun-na-ka dumu mu-lu azag zu-ge ne-ne 

In the house of wine, in the house of fruit, the son, the 

shining one of wisdom, who indeed liveth! 
kas-a-ka: has (line 13). a (Hymn to Bel, line 9). ka (line 5). 
gurun-na-ka: gurun equals inbu, "fruit" (Br. 10179). na, 
phonetic complement, ka (just explained). 
dumu (Hymn to Sin, line 5). 
mu-lu (Hymn to Bel, line 20). 
azag (Hymn to Sin, line 1). 

zu-ge: zu (Hymn to Bel, line 1). ge (Hymn to Adad, line 4). 
ne-ne (Hymn to Bel, line 21). 

mu-un-til-li: mu-un (Hymn to Sin, line 17). til is probably 
the longer form of ti (Hymn to Bel, line 16). 

22. nim-me azag dimmer mutin An-na-ge I mu-un-na-ab-e-e 
The lofty one, the shining one, the wine-god of Anu, to 

whom they speak! 
nim-me azag (line 19). 
dimmer mutin An-na-ge (line 13). 
I mu-un-na-ab-e-e (line 19). 

23. nim-me ki ses ma-ra an-pad-de a-na-dm mu-un-ma-al 
The lofty one of earth, the brother of the land , to whom 

they speak! What doth his hand effect! 
nim-me ki (line 20). 
ses (line 1). 

ma-ra (Hymn to Sin, line 16). 
an-pad-de (line 20). 
a-na-dm (line 14). 

mu-un-ma-al: mu-un (Hymn to Sin, line 17). ma-al is the 
verb (Hymn to Bel, line 11). 


24. e kaS-a-ka e gurun-na-ka dumu mulu azag zu-ge sigisse 

sag tuk-a-na 

In the house of wine, in the house of fruit, the son, the 
shining one of wisdom, who has a great sacrifice! 


kas-a-ka e gurun-na-nka dumu mulu azag zu-ge (line 21). 

sigisse (line 18). 

sag (Hymn to Bel, line 5). 

tuk-a-na: tuk equals iSu, "have" (Br. 11237). a, vowel of 
prolongation (Hymn to Bel, line 9). na, suffix of the third person 
(Hymn to Bel, line 1). 

25. ur-sag "* ku-a sag-mal-mal-ge 
The hero of great weapons! 

ur equals amelu, "man" (Br. 11256). 

sag (Hymn to Bel, line 5). ur-sag means "head-man", and is 
also equal to karradu, "mighty one". 

tf* ku-a: ^equals isu, "wood", and is a determinative before 
names of things made of wood, ku equals blu, "weapon", perhaps 
sacrificial implements, a, vowel of prolongation. 

sag-mal-mal-ge: sag (just explained), mal-mal: PISANNU 
is dialectic for either MA.AL or IKU and as a suffix makes an 
adjective of a noun (see Hymn to Bel, lines 1 and 18). ge (see 
Hymn to Adad, line 4). 

26. dimmer mutin An-na-ge u-sun-na sag-mal-mal-ge 
The wine god of Anu, the great plant-germinatorl 

dimmer mutin An-na-ge (line 13). 

u-sun-na (line 6). 

sag mal-mal-ge (line 25). 

27. u-sun gurun-gurun u-sun gurun-gurun Ses-mu u-sun 


The germinator of many fruits, the germinator of many 
fruits, my brother, the germinator of many fruits! 

u-sun (line 6). 

gurun-gurun, plural form of gurun (line 21). 

ses-mu: ses (line 1). mu (Hymn to Adad, line 16). 

28. it-sun a-ra-liu-sun gurun-gurun yes-mu u-sun gurun- gurun 
The germinator of the lower world, the germinator of many 

fruits, my brother, the germinator of many fruits! 

u-sun (line 6). 

a-ra-li has passed over into Assyrian as arallu, "lower world". 
a-ra-li is phonetic. There is a sign, URUGAL, translated by 
arallu. URUGAL consists of the "enclosure" sign containing the 
sign GAL and means "great house", e-kur-be is also translated 
by arallu and is equal to bit muti, "house of the dead" (Br. 6259); 
more literally the meaning is "house of the land of the dead". 

u-sun gurun-gurun ses-mu (line 27). 


29. in-nu gU 9^-gu-ga-ge thl-ta-al-ta-al mu-ib-rd-rd 

The vegetable germinator(?), the only plant begetter, who 
goeth forth! 

in-nu might equal tibnu, "straw", "vegetation" (Br. 4231). 
Perhaps it would be better to take in-nu as a verb meaning "he 
is the one who", in being a verbal prefix and nu the verbal stem 
in the sense v of zikaru (Br. 1964), as in nu-banda (MSL. 264). 

gis: US with the value gfS equals riM, "beget" (Br. 5042). 

is gu-ga-ge: *** (see line 25). gu (Hymn to Bel, line 20). ga 
answers as a vowel of prolongation. ^re v (Hymn to Adad, line 4). 

thl-ta-al-ta-al: thl is the value of AS required by the phonetic 
gloss ta-al-ta-al. 

mu-ib-rd-rd: mu (see Hymn to Bel, line 18). ib is a modal 
verbal infix (MSL. p. XXIV). rd is a value of DU (see Hymn to 
Adad, line 21, gin). 

30. dumu zi-ga-na ga-ni $h-zi-zi mu-ib-rd 

The son of life, his fulness in the midst of life goeth forth. 

dumu (Hymn to Sin, line 5). 

zi-ga-na: zi (Hymn to Bel, line 23). ga serves for vowel 
prolongation, na is postpositional. 

ga-ni: ga (Hymn to Bel, line 12). ni may be taken as the 
possessive suffix of the third person. 

sh-zi-zi: 3h (Hymn to Bel, line 22). zi (just explained). 

mu-ib-rd (see line 29). 

31. es diS 3r-lim-ma dimmer Dumu-zi-da-kam 
Thirty lines. Hymn to Tammuz. 

es: GESPU with the value es means "thirty". diS is frequently 
a determinative before proper names, but here seems to mean "line". 

&r lim-ma (see Hymn to Bel, colophon). 

dimmer Dumu-zi-da-kam : dimmer J)umu-zi (line 3). da (Hymn 
to Bel, line 4). kam (Hymn to Sin, line 27). 


aba 66 

abba 65 

abgin 77 

abdamen 35 

dbru 76 



akaeu&u 62 

akala 73 

ama 29 

amdnkiga 60 

ana 77 

ana-am 76 

anzakku 58 

Annaka 74 

anpadde 78 

anSdgga 48 

arali 79 

AsuT}ud 46 

aba ' 73 

ama 62 

ame 34 

d 26 

azu 47 

f 51 

ibmatla 60 

ide 28 

izba 41 

tro 42 

iminnabimeS 64 

imdasiggi 62 

immindul 62 

imsi 53 

tr 33 

\ 65 

id 53 

e 51 

ebi 54 

elum 37 

enab 40 

Enzu 55 

EnliM 46 

erimna 29 

erita 69 

eS 48 

egalani 78 

Enernugal 45 

eta 69 

e-ani 69 

egd 48 

erra 72 

u 38 

udda 61 

Udkibnunnage 53 

ukugalla 61 

ummeSildld 64 

ummeSisisi 64 

Unugka 75 

ursag 79 

urSasu 62 

usunnage 74 

ume-dm 68 

umu-egul 68 

umu-ese 68 

iimune 26 

unela 30 

u 64 

ugatta 61 

udei 51 

usuddu 52 

ba-edihuldhe 63 

Babbareta 35 

BabbarSutu 35 

bagantalld 65 

banibag 41 

banda 69 

baraka 75 

barru-a 61 

bartabba 60 



laMnag 68 

biSaggazune 49 

bur 68 

ga 33 

gaba 29 

galgale 67 

gannu 31 

garrani 69 

gaSdn 36 

gigga 28 

ginnaginna 66 

gi 79 

Q1Q 07 

gin 41 

giS 80 

geni 68 

gugage 80 

gurunnaka 78 

gurra 89 

gu 31 

da 40 

damalra 32 

damdlla 38 

disuka 65 

dimmer 26 

dimmerrine 38 

dugdugga 68 

Dumuzi 73 

du 32 

du 34 

sa 62 

za-egin 67 

zada 37 

zal 32 

zibbarage 75 

zigazuni 47 

zigi-en 66 

zidazu 68 

zuge 78 

ha-e 39 

hade-a 58 

hamumbnene 39 

harra 69 

harhara 65 

hu-e 39 

hulmal > . . 76 

hulla 50 

\urnu 46 

tura 39 

ka 41 

kalamma 61 

kaSaka 78 

kaSrabi 76 

kdSkasage 75 

kibala 67 

kika 75 

ku-a 79 

kurkurra 27 

lahna 32 

Idhe-a 54 

lid 49 

limma 42 

lugalra 51 

luh 66 

ma 30 

mah 54 

manibsi 40 

mara 50 

mdmen 38 

magur 44 

madim 48 

me-a 41 

melamzu 38 

Merri 64 

mu-ibrard 80 

mu-egin 40 

mu-edamal 37 

mu-emma$ 50 

mubi 42 

muduru 51 

muzu 58 

muhba 68 

muhzuSu 67 

muhnaSii 68 

mulu 64 

munibnene 39 

muradud 66 

mutin 76 

mudna 32 

Mullilli 40 

Mullilra 47 

mune 51 

munba-e-e 78 

munddnaka 63 

munmdl 78 

munndbc-e 77 

munsimal 76 

munsugamu 74 

munrururu 61 

munubbi 77 

muntilli 78 

nanam 72 

Nandra 77 

nd 67 

na-a 31 

ndmga 41 

ndmzuka 24 

ndni 34 



nimme 77 

ninzu 37 

Ninlil 62 

nftt'a 42 

nt 37 

nlkige 59 

mtena 25 

ningd 50 

ninru 52 

nene 78 

nesig 31 

nela 41 

nu 54 

Nudimmude 52 

nunuzdm 33 

numti 36 

sagezi 40 

sagmalmalge ....... 79 

sagmdl 32 

salduggazune 50 

salzi 50 

siba 28 

siba-e 40 

sigiSSe 79 

siggazune 47 

siUmmani 33 

su 68 

sug 54 

padozune 48 


A-arra 31 

ru 66 

ruti-azu 49 

Sd 37 

Sdzisi 80 

Sdmu 76 

Sam 39 

Sisunukima 45 

iskima 54 

&e 38 

Sesmu 79 

Sermal 25 

Sermdttasune 47 

5ii 41 

$A-ummeti 67 

. 41 

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tuggim 62 

tukana 79 

turture 67 

turturzu 68 

tuSena . 72 

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